Comparative temporal analyses of the Pinus sylvestris L. var. mongolica litv. apical bud proteome from dormancy to growth
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Bud dormancy in perennial plants adapts to environmental and seasonal changes. Bud dormancy is of ecological interest because it affects forest population growth characteristics and is of economical interest because it impacts wood production levels. To understand Pinus sylvestris L. var. mongolica litv. bud-dormancy and bud-burst mechanisms, we characterized the proteomes of their apical buds at the four critical stages that occur during the dormancy-to-growth transition. Ninety-six proteins with altered expression patterns were identified using NanoLC–ESI-MS/MS. The majority of these proteins (57%) are involved in metabolic and other cellular processes. For 28% of the proteins, a function could not be assigned. However, because their expression levels changed, they may be potential candidate bud development- or dormancy-related proteins. Of the 75 non-redundant bud proteins identified, ascorbate peroxidase, pathogenesis-related protein PR-10, and heat shock proteins dramatically increased during August and November, suggesting that they may involved in the initiation of bud dormancy. Conversely, S-adenosylmethionine synthetase, abscisic acid/stress-induced proteins, superoxide dismutase (SOD), caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase, actin, and type IIIa membrane protein cp-wap13 had greater expression levels during April, suggesting that they may be involved in the initiation of bud dormancy-release. Cell division cycle protein 48 and eukaryotic initiation factors 4A-15 and 4A had greater expression levels during May, suggesting that they may regulate cell proliferate and differentiation in the shoot apical meristem. These observations provide insights into the molecular mechanisms that induce or break bud dormancy.