Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences reveals distal gut bacterial diversity in wild wolves (Canis lupus)
- 550 Downloads
The aim of this study was to describe the microbial communities in the distal gut of wild wolves (Canis lupus). Fecal samples were collected from three healthy unrelated adult wolves captured at the nearby of Dalai Lake Nature Reserve in Inner Mongolia of China. The diversity of fecal bacteria was investigated by constructing PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene clone libraries using the universal bacterial primers 27 F and 1493 R. A total of 307 non-chimeric near-full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences were analyzed and 65 non-redundant bacteria phylotypes (operational taxonomical units, OTUs) were identified. Seventeen OTUs (26%) showed less than 98% sequence similarity to 16S rRNA gene sequences were reported previously. Five different bacterial phyla were identified, with the majority of OTUs being classified within the phylum Firmicutes (60%), followed by Bacteroidetes (16.9%), Proteobacteria (9.2%), Fusobacteria (9.2%) and Actinobacteria (4.6%). The majority of clones fell within the order Clostridiales (53.8% of OTUs). It was predominantly affiliated with five families: Lachnospiraceae was the most diverse bacterial family in this order, followed by Ruminococcaceae, Clostridiaceae, Peptococcaceae and Peptostreptococcaceae.
KeywordsWolf (Canis lupus) Bacterial diversity 16S rRNA gene Fecal sample Phylogenetic analysis
This work was supported by the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in China (NCET-07-0507), the Natural Science Foundation in Shandong Province of China (Z2008D01) and the Project of Science and Technology Development Plan in Shandong Province of China (2007GG2009011).
- 6.Macfarlane S, Macfarlane GT (2003) Regulation of short–chain fatty acid production. P Nutr Soc 62:67–72Google Scholar
- 27.Wilson KH, Blitchington RB (1996) Human colonic biota studied by ribosomal DNA sequence analysis. Appl Environ Microbio 62:2273–2278Google Scholar
- 33.Yang S, Ma S, Chen J, Mao H, He Y, Xi D, Yang L, He T, Deng W (2009) Bacterial diversity in the rumen of Gayals (Bos frontalis), Swamp buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) and Holstein cow as revealed by cloned 16S rRNA gene sequences. Mol Biol Rep. doi:10.1007/s11033-009-9664-6
- 38.Clutton BJ (1995) Origins of the dog: domestication and early history. In: Serpell J (ed) The domestic dog – its evolution, behaviour and interactions with people. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp 7–20Google Scholar
- 46.Good IJ (1953) The population frequencies of species and the estimation of population parameters. Biometrica 40:237–264Google Scholar
- 47.Atlas R, Bartha R (1998) Microbial ecology: fundamentals and applications. Addison–Wesley Publishing Company, Reading PAGoogle Scholar
- 59.Wagner A, Blackstone N, Cartwright P, Dick M, Misof B, Snow P, Wagner GP, Bartels J, Murtha M, Pendleton J (1994) Surveys of gene families using polymerase chain reaction: PCR selection and PCR drift. Syst Biol 43:250–261Google Scholar