Identification of a recurrent insertion mutation in the LDLR gene in a Pakistani family with autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemia
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Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH) results in elevated levels of blood lipids including total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) with normal triglycerides (TG). This disease is one of the major contributors towards an early onset of coronary heart disease (CHD). The aim of the present study was to identify the genes responsible for causing FH in Pakistani population, for this purpose a large consanguineous FH family was selected for genetic analysis. Serum lipid levels, including TC, TG, LDL-C and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), were determined in patients and healthy controls. In order to find the causative mutation in this family, direct sequencing of the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene was performed. In addition the part of the Apolipoprotein-B (APOB) gene containing the mutations R3500Q and R3500W was also sequenced. Affected individuals of the family were found to have raised TC and LDL-C levels. Sequencing revealed an insertion mutation (c.2416_2417InsG) in exon 17 of the LDLR gene in all the affected individuals of the family. Common FH causing APOB mutations were not present in this family. Heterozygous individuals had TC levels ranging from ~300–500 mg/dl and the only homozygous individual with typical xanthomas had TC levels exceeding 900 mg/dl. This is the first report of a known LDLR gene mutation causing FH in the Pakistani population. Despite a large heterogeneity of LDLR mutations there are still some common mutations which are responsible for FH throughout the world.
KeywordsFamilial hypercholesterolemia Low density lipoprotein receptor Insertion mutation
We are thankful to the family members who participated in this study. This work was financially supported by grant no. 934 from the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan, awarded to RQ. Part of this work was supported by Shifa College of Medicine through a core grant to RQ. We are grateful to Tommy Hyatt, Lab Manager for Dr. Helen H. Hobbs’s Laboratory, McDermott Center for Human Growth and Development, USA, for providing the LDLR primer sequences.
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