Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences reveals rumen bacterial diversity in Yaks (Bos grunniens)
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Six matured male Yaks (Bos grunniens) with a mean live weight of 450 ± 23 kg (mean ± SD), were housed indoors in metabolism cages and fed pelleted lucerne (Medicago sativum). After an adjustment period of 24 days of feeding the diet, samples of rumen content were obtained for analysis of the bacteria in the liquor. The diversity of rumen bacteria was investigated by constructing a 16S rRNA gene clone library using the general bacterial primers F27 and R1492. A total of 130 clones, comprising nearly full length sequences (approx. 1.5 kb) were sequenced and submitted to BLAST and phylogenetic analysis. Using the criterion that similarity of 97% or greater with the sequences of cultivated bacteria, 16 clones were identified as Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, Pseudobutyrivibrio ruminis, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, Succiniclasticum ruminis, Selenomonas ruminantium and Prevotella ruminicola, respectively. A further 10 clones shared similarity ranging from 90 to 97% with cultivated bacteria but the similarity in sequences for the remaining 104 clones were less than 90% of those of cultivated bacteria. Using a phylogenetic analysis it was found that the majority of the clones identified (63.8%) were located in the Low G + C Subdivision, with most of the remainder (35.4% of clones) located in the Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteroides phylum and one clone (0.8%) was identified as a Proteobacteria. It was apparent that Yaks have a large and diverse range of bacteria in the rumen content which differ from those of cattle and other ruminants.
KeywordsYaks Rumen bacteria 16S rRNA gene Phylogenetic analysis
The financial supports provided by the Yunnan Provincial Natural Science Fund (2005C0038 M), the Young Scientist Research Fund of Yunnan Provincial Education Commission (06Y052B) and the “863” Key Program (2008AA101001) are acknowledged with gratitude.
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