Advertisement

Molecular Biology Reports

, Volume 36, Issue 2, pp 415–421 | Cite as

Cloning and characterization of class 1 and class 2 insulin-like growth factor-I mRNA in Songliao black pig

  • Shuqi Xiao
  • Shuang Li
  • Jiabao ZhangEmail author
  • Shumin Zhang
  • Lisheng Dai
  • Yonghua Bao
  • Ning Jiang
  • Yan Gao
  • Zhongli Zhao
  • Delin Mo
  • Yaosheng Chen
  • Zhihui ZhaoEmail author
Article

Abstract

Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) plays a fundamental role in postnatal mammalian growth, development, and metabolism. The mammalian IGF-I gene contains at least six exons from which several different mRNAs are transcribed. In this study, IGF-I mRNA in Songliao black pig liver was investigated using RLM-RACE. Using a 3′-RACE technique, we determined that all mRNA transcripts lacked exon 5 sequence and contained only exon 6 sequence. Using a 5′-RACE technique, we investigated the presence of class 1 and class 2 IGF-I mRNAs. In several other species, the class 1 and class 2 IGF-I polypeptides are generated from mRNAs containing exon 1 or exon 2, respectively. Both class 1 and class 2 IGF-I mRNAs were identified in Songliao black pig liver. Transcription is initiatated upstream of exons 1 and 2 at multiple dispersed start sites to yield two distinct IGF-I mRNA transcript classes which differ in the precursor peptides predicted from their individual leader sequences. Tissue distribution of Songliao black pig class 1 and class 2 IGF-I mRNA was investigated by real-time RT-PCR. Both classes of IGF-I mRNA were expressed in a variety of tissues, however, class 1 IGF-I mRNA was more abundant than class 2 in all tissues.

Keywords

Songliao black pig IGF-I RACE Real-time PCR 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was funded by National Natural Science Foundation (30771543) and the Promoting Northeast Old Industrial Base Program (2004BA907A22).

References

  1. 1.
    Jansen M, Schaik FA, Ricker AT, Bullock B, Woods DE, Gabbay KH et al (1983) Sequence of cDNA encoding human insulin-like growth factor I precursor. Nature 306:609–611PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Daughaday WH, Rotwein P (1989) Insulin-like growth factor I and II. Peptide, messenger ribonucleic acid and gene structures, serum, and tissue concentrations. Endocr Rev 10:68–91PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Christoforidis A, Maniadaki I, Stanhope R (2005) Growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 axis during puberty. Pediatr Endocrinol Rev 3:5–10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dunshea FR, Barneveld RJ (2003) Colostrum protein isolate enhances gut development, growth performance and plasma IGF-I and II in neonatal pigs Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 12(suppl):S40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Boutinaud M, Shand JH, Park MA, Phillips K, Beattie J, Flint DJ et al (2004) A quantitative RT-PCR study of the mRNA expression profile of the IGF axis during mammary gland development. J Mol Endocrinol 33:195–207PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Jansen E, Steenbergh PH, LeRoith D, Roberts CT Jr, Sussenbach JS (1991) Identification of multiple transcription start sites in the human insulin-like growth factor-I gene. Mol Cell Endocrinol 78:115–125PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lowe WL Jr, Roberts CT Jr, Lasky SR, LeRoith D (1987) Differential expression of alternative 5′ untranslated regions in mRNAs encoding rat insulin-like growth factor-I. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84:8946–8950PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wong EA, Ohlsen SM, Godfredson JA, Dean DM, Wheaton JE (1989) Cloning of ovine insulin-like growth factor-I cDNAs: heterogeneity in the mRNA population. DNA 8:649–657PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wang Y, Price SE, Jiang H (2003) Cloning and characterization of the bovine class 1 and class 2 insulin-like growth factor-I mRNAs. Domest Anim Endocrinol 25:315–328PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rotwein P, Pollock KM, Didier DK, Krivi GG (1086) Organization and sequence of the human insulin-like growth factor-I gene. J Biol Chem 261:4828–4832Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Adamo ML, Neuenschwander S, LeRoith D, Roberts CT Jr (1994) Structure, expression, and regulation of the IGF-I gene. Current directions in insulin-like growth factor research. Plemun Press, New York, pp 1–11Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Holthuizen E, LeRoith D, Roberts C, Rotwein P, Spencer EM, Sussenbach JS (1991) Revised nomenclature for the insulin-like growth factor genes and transcripts. In: Spencer EM (ed) Modern concepts of insulin-like growth factors. Elsevier Press, New York, pp 733–736Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lowe WL Jr, Lasky SR, LeRoith D, Roberts CT Jr (1998) Distribution and regulation of rat insulin-like growth factor-I messenger ribonucleic acids encoding alternative carboxyterminal E-peptides: evidence for differential processing and regulation in the liver. Mol Endocrinol 2:528–534Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hall LJ, Kajimoto Y, Bichell D, Kim SW, James PL, Counts D et al (1992) Functional analysis of the rat insulin-like growth factor-I gene and identification of an IGF-I gene promoter. DNA Cell Biol 11:301–313PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Adomo ML, Ben-Hur H, Roberts CT Jr, LeRoith D (1991) Regulation of start site usage in the leader exons of the rat insulin-like growth factor-I gene by development, fasting, and diabetes. Mol Endocrinol 5:1677–1686Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Pell JM, Saunders JC, Gilmour RS (1993) Differential regulation of transcription initiation from insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) leader exons and of tissue IGF-I expression in response to changed growth hormone and nutritional status in sheep. Endocrinology 132:1797–1807PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    O’Sullivan DC, Szestak TA, Pell JM (2002) Regulation of IGF-I mRNA by GH: putative functions for class 1 and 2 message. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 283:E251–E258PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Weller PA, Dickson MC, Huskisson NS, Dauncey MJ, Buttery PJ, Gilmour RS (1993) The porcine insulin-like growth factor-I gene: characterization and expression of alternate transcription sites. J Mol Endocrinol 11(2):201–211PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Brameld JM, Atkinson JL, Saunders JC, Pell JM, Buttery PJ, Gilmour RS (1996) Effects of growth hormone administration and dietary protein intake on insulin-like growth factor I and growth hormone receptor mRNA expression in porcine liver, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue. J Anim Sci 74(8):1832–1841PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bichell DP, Kikuchi K, Rotwein P (1992) Growth hormone rapidly activates insulin-like growth factor-I gene transcription in vivo. Mol Endocrinol 6:1899–1908PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Mathews LS, Norstedt G, Palmiter RD (1986) Regulation of insulin-like growth factor-I gene expression by growth hormone. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83:9343–9347PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Weller PA, Dauncey MJ, Bates PC, Brameld JM, Buttery PJ, Gilmour RS (1994) Regulation of porcine insulin-like growth factor-I and growth hormone receptor mRNA expression by energy status. Am J Physiol 266:776–785Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shuqi Xiao
    • 1
    • 2
  • Shuang Li
    • 1
  • Jiabao Zhang
    • 1
    Email author
  • Shumin Zhang
    • 1
  • Lisheng Dai
    • 1
  • Yonghua Bao
    • 2
  • Ning Jiang
    • 1
  • Yan Gao
    • 1
  • Zhongli Zhao
    • 1
  • Delin Mo
    • 3
  • Yaosheng Chen
    • 3
  • Zhihui Zhao
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Laboratory Animal CenterJilin UniversityChangchunP.R. China
  2. 2.College of Animal Science and Veterinary MedicineJilin UniversityChangchunP.R. China
  3. 3.School of Life ScienceSun Yat-sen UniversityGuangzhouP.R. China

Personalised recommendations