Molecular Breeding

, 36:37 | Cite as

Mapping QTLs for morpho-agronomic traits in proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.)

  • Santosh G. Rajput
  • Dipak K. Santra
  • James Schnable


Proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) is the cereal crop with the low water requirement and increasingly being used for human consumption. It is the most common rotational crop within wheat-based dryland production systems in the semiarid High Plains of the USA. However, there is no published genetic map for this species, which prevents the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL). The objectives of the present study were (1) construction of a genetic linkage map and (2) identification of DNA markers linked to QTLs for morpho-agronomic traits. A total of 93 recombinant inbred lines derived from a single F1 (“Huntsman” × “Minsum”) were genotyped with GBS-SNP markers and phenotyped for nine morpho-agronomic traits in the field during 2013 and 2014 at Scottsbluff and Sidney, NE. IciMapping v. was used for constructing a genetic linkage map and mapping QTL. The RILs exhibited significant variation for a wide range of traits, and several traits showed evidence of genotype × environment interactions. A total of 833 GBS-SNP markers formed 18 major and 84 minor linkage groups, whereas 519 markers remained ungrouped. A total of 117 GBS-SNP markers were distributed on the 18 major linkage groups spanning a genome length of 2137 cM of proso millet with an average distance of 18 cM between markers. The length and number of markers in each of the 18 major linkage groups ranged from 54.6 to 236 cM and 4 to 12, respectively. A total of 18 QTLs for eight morpho-agronomic traits were detected on 14 linkage groups, each of which explained 13.2–34.7 % phenotypic variance. DNA markers flanking the QTLs were identified, which will aid in marker-assisted selection of these traits. To our knowledge, this is the first genetic linkage map and QTL mapping in proso millet, which will support further genetic analysis and genomics-assisted genetic improvement of this crop.


Water use efficiency GBS-SNP Composite interval mapping Lodging Grain shattering Allotetraploid 



This research was partially funded by the “Nebraska Wheat Board,” “Cross Road Coop and Friends of Proso Millet Research Fund,” and multi-state Hatch project (NEB 43-119). The graduate research assistantship for S.G. Rajput was obtained from the Agronomy and Horticulture Department of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Partial funding for D.K. Santra’s salary was obtained from Hatch project (NEB-43-110). The authors would like to thank Drs. Stephen Baenziger, Alexander Pavlista, Brian Waters, Devin Rose and anonymous reviewers for reviewing the manuscript and scientific inputs.

Supplementary material

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Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 17 kb)
11032_2016_460_MOESM2_ESM.docx (15 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOCX 15 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Santosh G. Rajput
    • 1
    • 2
  • Dipak K. Santra
    • 1
  • James Schnable
    • 3
  1. 1.Panhandle Research and Extension CenterUniversity of Nebraska-LincolnScottsbluffUSA
  2. 2.2073 Dryland Genetics LLC, Roy J Carver Co-LabIowa State UniversityAmesUSA
  3. 3.Beadle Center E207University of Nebraska-LincolnLincolnUSA

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