Molecular Breeding

, Volume 17, Issue 2, pp 127–135

Resistance Gene Analog Polymorphism (RGAP) Markers Co-Localize with Disease Resistance Genes and QTL in Common Bean

  • Nedim Mutlu
  • Phillip N. Miklas
  • Dermot P. Coyne


Resistance (R) genes containing nucleotide-binding site (NBS)-leucine rich repeats (LRR) are the most prevalent types of R gene in plants. The objective of this study was to develop PCR-based R-gene analog polymorphism (RGAP) markers for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L). Twenty degenerate primers were designed from the conserved kinase-1a (GVGKTT) and hydrophobic domains (GLPLAL) of known NBS-LRR type R-genes and from EST databases. Sixty-six of the 100 primer combinations tested yielded polymorphism. Thirty-two RGAP markers were mapped in the BAT 93/Jalo EEP558 core mapping population for common bean. The markers mapped to 10 of 11 linkage groups with a strong tendency for clustering. In addition, the RGAP markers co-located, on six linkage groups, with 15 resistance gene analogs (RGAs) that were previously mapped in other populations of common bean. The distance between the priming sites in NBS-LRR type R-genes is around 500 bp. Of the 32 RGAP markers, 19 had sizes larger and 13 less than 500 bp. RGAP markers mapped close to known R-genes on B11, and to QTLs for resistance on B1, B2, B6, B7, B8, B10, and B11. RGAP appears to provide a useful marker technique for tagging and mapping R-genes in segregating common bean populations, discovery of candidate genes underlying resistance QTL, and future cloning of R-genes in common bean.

Key words

Core map Disease resistance Gene clusters Phaseolus vulgaris R gene 



Hydrophobic domain




Linkage group


Quantitative trait locus/loci


Resistance gene analog polymorphism


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Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nedim Mutlu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Phillip N. Miklas
    • 3
  • Dermot P. Coyne
    • 2
  1. 1.Bati Akdeniz Agricultural Research InstituteAntalyaTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Agronomy and HorticultureUniversity of NebraskaLincolnUSA
  3. 3.USDA-ARSVegetable and Forage Crop Research UnitProsserUSA

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