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Integrative and suppressive emotion regulation differentially predict well-being through basic need satisfaction and frustration: A test of three countries

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Abstract

Individuals’ emotion regulatory styles are differentially related to well-being. Drawing on self-determination theory (Ryan and Deci 2017, Self-determination theory: basic psychological needs in motivation, development, and wellness, Guilford Press, New York), researchers have recently explored the concept of integrative emotion regulation (IER) as an adaptive emotion regulation style, contrasting it with the less adaptive style of suppressive emotion regulation (SER). This research studied the extent to which the relations between IER and SER and well-being are mediated by the satisfaction and frustration of individuals’ basic psychological needs. Data were collected in three countries, Israel (n = 224), Peru (n = 304), and Brazil (n = 203). Participants filled in questionnaires assessing the study variables. Multi-group structural equation modeling (SEM) results showed that integrative emotion regulation positively predicted well-being, mediated by psychological need satisfaction, in all three countries. Moreover, psychological need frustration mediated the relationship between suppressive emotion regulation and well-being. The results support and extend recent findings demonstrating the adaptive outcomes of IER and the maladaptive outcomes of SER. The article concludes by discussing the implications and limitations of the research.

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Appendix: Frequencies and proportions of undesired emotions across the three countries

Appendix: Frequencies and proportions of undesired emotions across the three countries

Emotion Israel (N = 224)   Peru (N = 304)   Brazil (N = 203)
Hebrew N %   Spanish N % Portuguese N %
Anxiety חרדה 51 23   Ansiedad 11 39   Ansiedade 44 22
Nervousness עצבנות 31 14   Nerviosismo 52 17   Nervosismo 3 2
Worry דאגה 8 4   Preocupación 32 11   Preocupação 2 1
Fear פחד 63 28   Miedo 80 26   Medo 40 20
Stress לחץ 55 25   Estrés 77 24   Estresse 14 7
Anger כעס 68 30   Enojo/Ira 56 18   Raiva/Ira 76 37
Hate שנאה 52 23   Odio 78 26   Ódio 41 20
Despair ייאוש 44 20   Desesperación 39 13   Desesperança 10 5
Sadness עצב 43 19   Tristeza 33 11   Tristeza 52 26
Guilt אשמה 6 3   Culpa 12 4   Culpa 3 2
Disappointment אכזבה 23 10   Decepción 15 5   Desilusão 4 2
Resentment טינה 5 2   Rencor 13 13   Ressentimento 1 0.5
Hostility עוינות 14 6   Hostilidad 12 4   Hostilidade 3 2
Jealousy קנאה 15 7   Celos 22 8   Inveja 12 6
Shame בושה 3 1   Verguenza 18 6   Vergonha 1 1
Frustration תסכול 11 5   Frustración 11 4   Frustração 6 3
Pride גאווה 3 1   Orgullo 8 3   Orgulho 3 2
Contempt בוז 5 2   Desprecio 25 8   Desprezo 5 7
Love 0 0   Amor 7 2   Amor 2 1
  1. Note. Five most frequent undesired emotions and their percentages per country appear in bold

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Benita, M., Benish-Weisman, M., Matos, L. et al. Integrative and suppressive emotion regulation differentially predict well-being through basic need satisfaction and frustration: A test of three countries. Motiv Emot 44, 67–81 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11031-019-09781-x

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Keywords

  • Integrative emotion regulation
  • Emotional suppression
  • Basic need satisfaction and frustration
  • Cross cultural research