Individuals’ emotion regulatory styles are differentially related to well-being. Drawing on self-determination theory (Ryan and Deci 2017, Self-determination theory: basic psychological needs in motivation, development, and wellness, Guilford Press, New York), researchers have recently explored the concept of integrative emotion regulation (IER) as an adaptive emotion regulation style, contrasting it with the less adaptive style of suppressive emotion regulation (SER). This research studied the extent to which the relations between IER and SER and well-being are mediated by the satisfaction and frustration of individuals’ basic psychological needs. Data were collected in three countries, Israel (n = 224), Peru (n = 304), and Brazil (n = 203). Participants filled in questionnaires assessing the study variables. Multi-group structural equation modeling (SEM) results showed that integrative emotion regulation positively predicted well-being, mediated by psychological need satisfaction, in all three countries. Moreover, psychological need frustration mediated the relationship between suppressive emotion regulation and well-being. The results support and extend recent findings demonstrating the adaptive outcomes of IER and the maladaptive outcomes of SER. The article concludes by discussing the implications and limitations of the research.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Adie, J. W., Duda, J. L., & Ntoumanis, N. (2012). Perceived coach-autonomy support, basic need satisfaction and the well- and ill-being of elite youth soccer players: A longitudinal investigation. Psychology of Sport and Exercise,13, 51–59. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2011.07.008.
Ahmad, I., Vansteenkiste, M., & Soenens, B. (2013). The relations of Arab Jordanian adolescents’ perceived maternal parenting to teacher-rated adjustment and problems: The intervening role of perceived need satisfaction. Developmental Psychology,49, 177–183. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0027837.
Aldao, A., Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Schweizer, S. (2010). Emotion-regulation strategies across psychopathology: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review,30(2), 217–237. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2009.11.004.
Arbuckle, J. L. (2012). IBM®SPSS®AmosTM 21 User’s Guide. IBM.
Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., & Allen, K. B. (2004). Assessment of mindfulness by self-report: The Kentucky inventory of mindfulness skills. Assessment,11, 191–206. https://doi.org/10.1177/1073191104268029.
Bartholomew, K. J., Ntoumanis, N., Ryan, R. M., Bosch, J. A., & Thøgersen-Ntoumani, C. (2011). Self-determination theory and diminished functioning: The role of interpersonal control and psychological need thwarting. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin,37, 1459–1473. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167211413125.
Benita, M., Levkovitz, T., & Roth, G. (2017). Integrative emotion regulation predicts adolescents’ prosocial behavior through the mediation of empathy. Learning and Instruction,50, 14–20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2016.11.004.
Ben-Zur, H. (2009). Coping styles and affect. International Journal of Stress Management,16, 87–101. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0015731.
Brenning, K., Soenens, B., Van Petegem, S., & Vansteenkiste, M. (2015). Perceived maternal autonomy support and early adolescent emotion regulation: A longitudinal study. Social Development,24, 561–578. https://doi.org/10.1111/sode.12107.
Brockman, R., Ciarrochi, J., Parker, P., & Kashdan, T. (2017). Emotion regulation strategies in daily life: mindfulness, cognitive reappraisal and emotion suppression. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy,46, 91–113. https://doi.org/10.1080/16506073.2016.1218926.
Brown, K. W., & Ryan, R. M. (2003). The benefits of being present: Mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,84, 822–848. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.2062.
Browne, M. W., & Cudeck, R. (1993). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In K. Bollen & J. S. Long (Eds.), Testing structural equation models (pp. 136–162). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Butler, E. A., Lee, T. L., & Gross, J. J. (2007). Emotion regulation and culture: Are the social consequences of emotion suppression culture-specific? Emotion,7, 30–48. https://doi.org/10.1037/1528-35220.127.116.11.
Chambers, R., Gullone, E., & Allen, N. B. (2009). Mindful emotion regulation: An integrative review. Clinical Psychology Review,29, 560–572. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2009.06.005.
Chen, B., Soenens, B., Vansteenkiste, M., Van Petegem, S., & Beyers, W. (2016). Where do the cultural differences in dynamics of controlling parenting lie? adolescents as active agents in the perception of and coping with parental behavior. Psychologica Belgica,56, 169–192. https://doi.org/10.5334/pb.306.
Chen, B., Vansteenkiste, M., Beyers, W., Boone, L., Deci, E. L., Kaap-Deeder, J. V. der, … Verstuyf, J. (2015). Basic psychological need satisfaction, need frustration, and need strength across four cultures. Motivation and Emotion, 39, 216–236. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11031-014-9450-1
Chen, B., Vansteenkiste, M., Beyers, W., Soenens, B., & Van Petegem, S. (2013). Autonomy in family decision making for Chinese adolescents: Disentangling the dual meaning of autonomy. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology,44(7), 1184–1209. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022113480038.
Cheung, G. W., & Rensvold, R. B. (2002). Evaluating goodness-of-fit indexes for testing measurement invariance. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal,9, 233–255. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15328007SEM0902_5.
Chirkov, V., Ryan, R. M., Kim, Y., & Kaplan, U. (2003). Differentiating autonomy from individualism and independence: A self-determination theory perspective on internalization of cultural orientations and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,84, 97–110. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3518.104.22.168.
Church, A. T., Katigbak, M. S., Locke, K. D., Zhang, H., Shen, J., de Jesús Vargas-Flores, J., … Cabrera, H. F. (2013). Need satisfaction and well-being: Testing self-determination theory in eight cultures. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 44, 507–534. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022112466590
Collie, R. J., Shapka, J. D., Perry, N. E., & Martin, A. J. (2016). Teachers’ psychological functioning in the workplace: Exploring the roles of contextual beliefs, need satisfaction, and personal characteristics. Journal of Educational Psychology,108, 788–799. https://doi.org/10.1037/edu0000088.
Cordeiro, P., Paixão, P., Lens, W., Lacante, M., & Sheldon, K. (2016). Factor structure and dimensionality of the balanced measure of psychological needs among Portuguese high school students. Relations to well-being and ill-being. Learning and Individual Differences,47, 51–60. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2015.12.010.
Dalgleish, T., Yiend, J., Schweizer, S., & Dunn, B. D. (2009). Ironic effects of emotion suppression when recounting distressing memories. Emotion,9, 744–749. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0017290.
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The “what” and” why” of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry,11, 227–268. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327965pli1104_01.
DeHaan, C. R., Hirai, T., & Ryan, R. M. (2016). Nussbaum’s capabilities and self-determination theory’s basic psychological needs: Relating some fundamentals of human wellness. Journal of Happiness Studies,17, 2037–2049. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-015-9684-y.
Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment,49, 71–75. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327752jpa4901_13.
Dunn, B. D., Billotti, D., Murphy, V., & Dalgleish, T. (2009). The consequences of effortful emotion regulation when processing distressing material: A comparison of suppression and acceptance. Behaviour Research and Therapy,47, 761–773. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2009.05.007.
Elst, T. V., den Broeck, A. V., Witte, H. D., & Cuyper, N. D. (2012). The mediating role of frustration of psychological needs in the relationship between job insecurity and work-related well-being. Work & Stress,26, 252–271. https://doi.org/10.1080/02678373.2012.703900.
Fontaine, J. R., Scherer, K. R., Roesch, E. B., & Ellsworth, P. C. (2007). The world of emotions is not two-dimensional. Psychological Science,18, 1050–1057. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.2007.02024.x.
Ford, B. Q., Lam, P., John, O. P., & Mauss, I. B. (2018). The psychological health benefits of accepting negative emotions and thoughts: Laboratory, diary, and longitudinal evidence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,115, 1075–1092. https://doi.org/10.1037/pspp0000157.
Gross, J. J. (1998a). Antecedent- and response-focused emotion regulation: Divergent consequences for experience, expression, and physiology. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,74, 224–237. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3522.214.171.124.
Gross, J. J. (1998b). The emerging field of emotion regulation: An integrative review. Review of General Psychology,2, 271–299. https://doi.org/10.1037/1089-26126.96.36.1991.
Gross, J. J., & John, O. P. (2003). Individual differences in two emotion regulation processes: Implications for affect, relationships, and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,85, 348–362. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.528.
Haerens, L., Aelterman, N., Vansteenkiste, M., Soenens, B., & Van Petegem, S. (2015). Do perceived autonomy-supportive and controlling teaching relate to physical education students’ motivational experiences through unique pathways? Distinguishing between the bright and dark side of motivation. Psychology of Sport & Exercise, 16, 26–36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2014.08.013.
Haga, S. M., Kraft, P., & Corby, E. K. (2009). Emotion regulation: Antecedents and well-being outcomes of cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression in cross-cultural samples. Journal of Happiness Studies,10, 271–291. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-007-9080-3.
Hayes, S. C., Strosahl, K., & Wilson, K. G. (1999). Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: An experiential approach to behavior change. New York: Guilford Press.
Hofstede, G. (2003). Culture’s consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions and organizations across nations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Hofstede, G. (2011). Dimensionalizing cultures: The Hofstede model in context. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture. https://doi.org/10.9707/2307-0919.1014.
Hoyle, R. H. (1995). Structural equation modeling: Concepts, issues, and applications. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Jang, H., Reeve, J., Ryan, R. M., & Kim, A. (2009). Can self-determination theory explain what underlies the productive, satisfying learning experiences of collectivistically oriented Korean students? Journal of Educational Psychology,101, 644–661. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0014241.
John, O. P., & Gross, J. J. (2004). Healthy and unhealthy emotion regulation: Personality processes, individual differences, and life span development. Journal of Personality,72, 1301–1334. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.2004.00298.x.
Kao, C. H., Su, J. C., Crocker, J., & Chang, J. H. (2017). The benefits of transcending self-interest: Examining the role of self-transcendence on expressive suppression and well-being. Journal of Happiness Studies,18, 959–975. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-016-9759-4.
Kishton, J. M., & Widaman, K. F. (1994). Unidimensional versus domain representative parceling of questionnaire items: An empirical example. Educational and Psychological Measurement,54, 757–765. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013164494054003022.
Kohls, N., Sauer, S., & Walach, H. (2009). Facets of mindfulness: Results of an online study investigating the Freiburg mindfulness inventory. Personality and Individual Differences,46, 224–230. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2008.10.009.
Koole, S. L. (2009). The psychology of emotion regulation: An integrative review. Cognition and Emotion,23, 4–41. https://doi.org/10.1080/02699930802619031.
Little, T. D., Cunningham, W. A., Shahar, G., & Widaman, K. F. (2002). To parcel or not to parcel: Exploring the question, weighing the merits. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal,9, 151–173. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15328007sem0902_1.
Low, R. S., Overall, N. C., Hammond, M. D., & Girme, Y. U. (2017). Emotional suppression during personal goal pursuit impedes goal strivings and achievement. Emotion,17, 208–223. https://doi.org/10.1037/emo0000218.
Martela, F., & Ryan, R. M. (2016). The benefits of benevolence: Basic psychological needs, beneficence, and the enhancement of well-being. Journal of Personality,84, 750–764. https://doi.org/10.1111/jopy.12215.
Matsumoto, D. (2007). Individual and cultural differences on status differentiation: The status differentiation scale. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology,38, 413–431. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022107302311.
Matsumoto, D., Yoo, S. H., Fontaine, J., Anguas-Wong, A. M., Arriola, M., Ataca, B., … Granskaya, J. V. (2008). Mapping expressive differences around the world. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 39(1), 55–74. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022107311854
Matsumoto, D., Yoo, S. H., & Nakagawa, S. (2008b). Culture, emotion regulation, and adjustment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,94, 925–937. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.2065.
McRae, K., Jacobs, S. E., Ray, R. D., John, O. P., & Gross, J. J. (2012). Individual differences in reappraisal ability: Links to reappraisal frequency, well-being, and cognitive control. Journal of Research in Personality, 46(1), 2–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2011.10.003.
Mesquita, B., Boiger, M., & De Leersnyder, J. (2017). Doing emotions: The role of culture in everyday emotions. European Review of Social Psychology,28, 95–133. https://doi.org/10.1080/10463283.2017.1329107.
Orkibi, H., & Ronen, T. (2017). Basic psychological needs satisfaction mediates the association between self-control skills and subjective well-being. Frontiers in Psychology,8, 936. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00936.
Páez, D., Seguel, A. M., & Martínez-Sánchez, F. (2013). Incremental validity of alexithymia, emotional coping and humor style on happiness and psychological well-being. Journal of Happiness Studies,14, 1621–1637. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-012-9400-0.
Roth, G., & Assor, A. (2012). The costs of parental pressure to express emotions: Conditional regard and autonomy support as predictors of emotion regulation and intimacy. Journal of Adolescence,35, 799–808. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2011.11.005.
Roth, G., Assor, A., Niemiec, C. P., Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2009). The emotional and academic consequences of parental conditional regard: Comparing conditional positive regard, conditional negative regard, and autonomy support as parenting practices. Developmental Psychology,45, 1119.
Roth, G., Benita, M., Amrani, C., Shachar, B.-H., Asoulin, H., Moed, A., … Kanat-Maymon, Y. (2014). Integration of negative emotional experience versus suppression: Addressing the question of adaptive functioning. Emotion, 14, 908–919. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0037051
Roth, G., Shachar, B. H., Zohar-Shefer, Y., Benita, M., Moed, A., Bibi, U., … Ryan, R. M. (2018). Benefits of emotional integration and costs of emotional distancing. Journal of Personality, 86, 919–934. https://doi.org/10.1111/jopy.12366
Roth, G., Shane, N., & Kanat-Maymon, Y. (2017). Empathising with the enemy: Emotion regulation and support for humanitarian aid in violent conflicts. Cognition and Emotion,31, 1511–1524. https://doi.org/10.1080/02699931.2016.1237348.
Roth, G., Vansteenkiste, M., & Ryan. R. M. (in press). Integrative emotion regulation: Process and development from a self-determination theory perspective. Development and Psychopathology. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0954579419000403.
Ryan, R. M. (1995). Psychological needs and the facilitation of integrative processes. Journal of Personality,63, 397–427. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.1995.tb00501.x.
Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2001). On happiness and human potentials: A review of research on hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. Annual Review of Psychology,52, 141–166. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.52.1.141.
Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2017). Self-determination theory: Basic psychological needs in motivation, development, and wellness. New York: Guilford Press.
Ryan, R. M., Deci, E. L., Grolnick, W. S., & La Guardia, J. G. (2006a). The significance of autonomy and autonomy support in psychological development and psychopathology. In D. Cicchetti & D. J. Cohne (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology (Vol. 1, pp. 795–849). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Ryan, R. M., Deci, E. L., & Vansteenkiste, M. (2016). Autonomy and autonomy disturbances in self-development and psychopathology: Research on motivation, attachment, and clinical process. In Dante Cicchetti (Ed.), Developmental psychopathology, theory and method (Vol. 1, pp. 385–438). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Ryan, R. M., Huta, V., & Deci, E. L. (2006b). Living well: a self-determination theory perspective on eudaimonia. Journal of Happiness Studies,9, 139–170. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-006-9023-4.
Ryff, C. D. (1989). Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,57, 1069–1081. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35220.127.116.119.
Ryff, C. D., & Singer, B. (1998). The contours of positive human health. Psychological Inquiry,9, 1–28. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327965pli0901_1.
Schumacker, R. E., & Lomax, R. G. (2010). A beginner’s guide to structural equation modeling (3rd ed.). New York: Routledge.
Schwartz, S. H. (1992). Universals in the content and structure of values: Theoretical advances and empirical tests in 20 countries. In M. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 25, pp. 1–65). New York: Elsevier.
Shields, A., & Cicchetti, D. (1997). Emotion regulation among school-age children: The development and validation of a new criterion Q-sort scale. Developmental Psychology,33(6), 906–916. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1618.104.22.1686.
Shiota, M. N. (2006). Silver linings and candles in the dark: Differences among positive coping strategies in predicting subjective well-being. Emotion,6, 335–339. https://doi.org/10.1037/1528-3522.214.171.1245.
Soto, J. A., Perez, C. R., Kim, Y.-H., Lee, E. A., & Minnick, M. R. (2011). Is expressive suppression always associated with poorer psychological functioning? A cross-cultural comparison between European Americans and Hong Kong Chinese. Emotion,11, 1450–1455. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0023340.
Steenkamp, J. B. E. M., & Baumgartner, H. (1998). Assessing measurement invariance in cross-national consumer research. Journal of Consumer Research,25, 78–90. https://doi.org/10.1086/209528.
Tsai, W., & Lu, Q. (2018). Culture, emotion suppression and disclosure, and health. Social and Personality Psychology Compass,12, e12373. https://doi.org/10.1111/spc3.12373.
Unanue, W., Dittmar, H., Vignoles, V. L., & Vansteenkiste, M. (2014). Materialism and well-being in the UK and Chile: Basic need satisfaction and basic need frustration as underlying psychological processes. European Journal of Personality,28, 569–585. https://doi.org/10.1002/per.1954.
Van De Schoot, R., Schmidt, P., De Beuckelaer, A., Lek, K., & Zondervan-Zwijnenburg, M. (2015). Editorial: Measurement invariance. Frontiers in Psychology. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01064.
Vansteenkiste, M., Niemiec, C. P., & Soenens, B. (2010). The development of the five mini-theories of self-determination theory: An historical overview, emerging trends, and future directions. In T. C. Urdan & S. A. Karabenick (Eds.), The decade ahead: Theoretical perspectives on motivation and achievement (pp. 105–165). London: Emerald Group.
Vansteenkiste, M., & Ryan, R. M. (2013). On psychological growth and vulnerability: Basic psychological need satisfaction and need frustration as a unifying principle. Journal of Psychotherapy Integration,23, 263–280. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0032359.
Webb, T. L., Miles, E., & Sheeran, P. (2012). Dealing with feeling: A meta-analysis of the effectiveness of strategies derived from the process model of emotion regulation. Psychological Bulletin,138, 775–808. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0027600.
Wegner, D. M. (1994). Ironic processes of mental control. Psychological Review,101, 34–52. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295x.101.1.34.
Weinstein, N., Przybylski, A. K., & Ryan, R. M. (2013). The integrative process: New research and future directions. Current Directions in Psychological Science,22, 69–74. https://doi.org/10.1177/0963721412468001.
Weinstein, N., & Ryan, R. M. (2010). When helping helps: Autonomous motivation for prosocial behavior and its influence on well-being for the helper and recipient. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,98, 222–244. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0016984.
This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors. All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Appendix: Frequencies and proportions of undesired emotions across the three countries
Appendix: Frequencies and proportions of undesired emotions across the three countries
|Emotion||Israel (N = 224)||Peru (N = 304)||Brazil (N = 203)|
About this article
Cite this article
Benita, M., Benish-Weisman, M., Matos, L. et al. Integrative and suppressive emotion regulation differentially predict well-being through basic need satisfaction and frustration: A test of three countries. Motiv Emot 44, 67–81 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11031-019-09781-x
- Integrative emotion regulation
- Emotional suppression
- Basic need satisfaction and frustration
- Cross cultural research