Advertisement

Motivation and Emotion

, Volume 42, Issue 2, pp 236–257 | Cite as

“Inside out”: Appraisals for achievement emotions from constructive, positive, and negative feedback on writing

  • Carlton J. FongEmail author
  • Kyle M. Williams
  • Zachary H. Williamson
  • Shengjie Lin
  • Young Won Kim
  • Diane L. Schallert
Original Paper

Abstract

Even with the recent surge of research on achievement emotions, few studies have investigated emotions in feedback situations and the appraisals associated with such emotions. The purpose of this study was to examine emotion appraisals of constructive criticism, negative, and positive feedback, to aid us in determining whether these appraisals differed by feedback type. In a task asking them to provide open-ended responses as they imagined receiving feedback on a writing task, undergraduates (N = 270) gave reasons for why they might experience unpleasant emotions from positive feedback and pleasant emotions from negative feedback along with reasons for both pleasant and unpleasant emotions emanating from constructive feedback. Open coding of responses yielded categories for each emotion-feedback pairing that, across all emotions, were collapsed into five appraisal categories: feedback suggests ways to improve, a mismatch between feedback and task exists, feedback targets the self or one’s ability, feedback says something about the relationship between feedback giver and receiver, and the task is judged for its value. Distributions of appraisal categories distinguished constructive feedback from positive and negative feedback. Implications are drawn for control-value theory and for classroom feedback practices.

Keywords

Feedback Emotions Appraisals Control-value theory College students 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We would like to acknowledge Ling-Hui Chen and Jayce R. Warner for their help in the initial analyses of the data. We are also grateful to Reinhard Pekrun and Lisa Linnenbrink-Garcia for their insights on various aspects of our paper.

References

  1. Ainley, M. (2006). Connecting with learning: Motivation, affect, and cognition in interest process. Educational Psychology Review, 18, 391–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arnold, M. B. (1960). Emotion and personality. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.Google Scholar
  4. Bangert-Drowns, R. L., Kulik, C. C., Kulik, J. A., & Morgan, M. T. (1991). The instructional effect of feedback in test-like events. Review of Educational Research, 61, 213–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Butz, N. T., Stupnisky, R. H., & Pekrun, R. (2015). Students’ emotions for achievement and technology use in synchronous hybrid graduate programmes: A control-value approach. Research in Learning Technology, 23, 26097.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Butz, N. T., Stupnisky, R. H., Pekrun, R., Jensen, J. L., & Harsell, D. M. (2016). The impact of emotions on student achievement in synchronous hybrid business and public administration programs: A longitudinal test of control-value theory. Decision Sciences Journal of Innovative Education, 14, 441–474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Carver, C. S., & Scheier, M. F. (1998). On the self-regulation of behavior. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cassidy, J., Ziv, Y., Mehta, T. G., & Feeney, B. C. (2003). Feedback seeking in children and adolescents: Associations with self-perceptions, attachment representations, and depression. Child Development, 74, 612–628.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Corbin, J., & Strauss, A. (2014). Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory. Los Angeles: Sage publications.Google Scholar
  10. Daniels, L. M., & Gierl, M. J. (2017). The impact of immediate test score reporting on university students’ achievement emotions in the context of computer-based multiple-choice exams. Learning and Instruction, 52, 27–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Davis, H. A. (2001). The quality and impact of relationships between elementary school students and teachers. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 26, 431–453.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Deci, E. L., & Cascio, W. F. (1972, April). Changes in intrinsic motivation as a function of negative feedback and threats. Paper presented at the Eastern Psychological Association Meeting, Boston, MA, USA.Google Scholar
  13. Deci, E. L., Koestner, R., & Ryan, R. M. (1999). A meta-analytic review of experiments examining the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 125, 627–668.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.125.6.627.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Do, S. L., & Schallert, D. L. (2004). Emotions and classroom talk: Toward a model of the role of affect in students’ experiences of classroom discussions. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96, 619–634.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Duijnhouwer, H., Prins, F. J., & Stokking, K. M. (2012). Feedback providing improvement strategies and reflection on feedback use: Effects on students’ writing motivation, process, and performance. Learning and Instruction, 22, 171–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Elliot, A. J., Faler, J., McGregor, H. A., Campbell, W. K., Sedikides, C., & Harackiewicz, J. M. (2000). Competence valuation as a strategic intrinsic motivation process. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 26, 780–794.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ellsworth, P. C., & Smith, C. A. (1988). From appraisal to emotion: Differences among unpleasant feelings. Motivation and Emotion, 12, 271–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Evans, C. (2013). Making sense of assessment feedback in higher education. Review of Educational Research, 83, 70–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fasso, W. (2013). First year distance transition pedagogy: Synchronous online classrooms. International Journal of the First Year in Higher Education, 4, 33–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fishbach, A., & Finkelstein, S. R. (2012). How feedback influence persistence, disengagement, and change in goal pursuit. In H. Aarts & A. Elliot (Eds.), Goal-directed behavior (pp. 203–230). New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  21. Folkman, S., Lazarus, R. S., Dunkel-Schetter, C., DeLongis, A., & Gruen, R. J. (1986). Dynamics of a stressful encounter: Cognitive appraisal, coping, and encounter outcomes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 992–1003.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Fong, C. J., Warner, J. R., Williams, K. M., Schallert, D. L., Chen, L., Williamson, Z. H., & Lin, S. (2016). Deconstructing constructive criticism: The nature of academic emotions associated with constructive, positive, and negative feedback. Learning and Individual Differences, 49, 393–399.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2016.05.019.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Frijda, N. H. (1986). The emotions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Goetz, T., Frenzel, A. C., Pekrun, R., Hall, N. C., & Lüdtke, O. (2007). Between-and within-domain relations of students’ academic emotions. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99, 715–733.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Goetz, T., Frenzel, A. C., Stoeger, H., & Hall, N. C. (2010). Antecedents of everyday positive emotions: An experience sampling analysis. Motivation and Emotion, 34, 49–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Goetz, T., Lüdtke, O., Keller, M. M., & Lipnevich, A. A. (2013). Characteristics of teaching and students’ emotions in the classroom: Investigating differences across domains. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 38, 294–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Goetz, T., Nett, U. E., Martiny, S. E., Hall, N. C., Pekrun, R., Dettmers, S., & Trautwein, U. (2012). Students’ emotions during homework: Structures, self-concept antecedents, and achievement outcomes. Learning and Individual Differences, 22, 225–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hargreaves, E. (2013). Inquiring into children’s experiences of teacher feedback: Reconceptualising assessment for learning. Oxford Review of Education, 39, 229–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hattie, J., & Timperley, H. (2007). The power of feedback. Review of Educational Research, 77, 81–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Henderlong, J., & Lepper, M. R. (2002). The effects of praise on children’s intrinsic motivation: A review and synthesis. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 774–795.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Ilies, R., & Judge, T. A. (2005). Goal regulation across time: The effects of feedback and affect. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90, 453–467.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Izard, C. E. (2009). Emotion theory and research: Highlights, unanswered questions, and emerging issues. Annual Review of Psychology, 60, 1–25.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. Kamins, M. L., & Dweck, C. S. (1999). Person versus process praise and criticism: Implications for contingent self-worth and coping. Developmental Psychology, 35, 835–847.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Kernis, M. H., & Johnson, E. K. (1990). Current and typical self-appraisals: Differential responsiveness to evaluative feedback and implications for emotions. Journal of Research in Personality, 24, 241–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kiffin-Petersen, S., Murphy, S. A., & Soutar, G. (2012). The problem-solving service worker: Appraisal mechanisms and positive affective experiences during customer interactions. Human Relations, 65, 1179–1206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kilbourne, B. (1990). Constructive feedback: Learning the art: The story of Oliver and Taylor. Cambridge: Ontario Institute for Studies in Education Press & Brookline Books.Google Scholar
  37. Kluger, A. N., & Denisi, A. (1996). The effects of feedback interventions on performance: A historical review, a meta-analysis, and a preliminary feedback intervention theory. Psychological Bulletin, 119, 254–284.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.119.2.254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kuppens, P., & Van Mechelen, I. (2007). Interactional appraisal models for the anger appraisals of threatened self-esteem, other-blame, and frustration. Cognition and Emotion, 21, 56–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lazarus, R. S. (1991). Progress on a cognitive-motivational-relational theory of emotion. American Psychologist, 46, 819–834.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Lazarus, R. S., & Smith, C. A. (1991). Knowledge and appraisal in the cognition-emotion relationship. Cognition and Emotion, 2, 281–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lee, G., & Schallert, D. L. (2008). Constructing trust between teacher and students through feedback and revision cycles in an EFL writing classroom. Written Communication, 25(4), 506–537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Martin, A. J., & Dowson, M. (2009). Interpersonal relationships, motivation, engagement, and achievement: Yields for theory, current issues, and educational practice. Review of Educational Research, 79, 327–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Meyer, D. Z., & Avery, L. M. (2009). Excel as a qualitative data analysis tool. Field Methods, 21, 91–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Niemann, J., Wisse, B., Rus, D., Van Yperen, N. W., & Sassenberg, K. (2014). Anger and attitudinal reactions to negative feedback: The effects of emotional instability and power. Motivation and Emotion, 38, 687–699.Google Scholar
  45. Noddings, N. (2002). An ethic of caring and its implications for instructional arrangements. American Journal of Education, 96(2), 215–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Op‘t Eynde, P., & Turner, J. E. (2006). Focusing on the complexity of emotion issues in academic learning: A dynamical component systems approach. Educational Psychology Review, 18, 361–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Ortony, A., Clore, G., & Collins, A. (1988). The cognitive structure of emotions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Pekrun, R. (2000). A social cognitive, control-value theory of achievement emotions. In J. Heckhausen (Ed.), Motivational Psychology of Human Development (pp. 143–163). Oxford: Elsevier Science.Google Scholar
  49. Pekrun, R. (2006). The control-value theory of achievement emotions: Assumptions, corollaries, and implications for educational research and practice. Educational Psychology Review, 18, 315–341.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-006-9029-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Pekrun, R., Cusack, A., Murayama, K., Elliot, A. J., & Thomas, K. (2014). The power of anticipated feedback: Effects on students’ achievement goals and achievement emotions. Learning and Instruction, 29, 115–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Pekrun, R., Goetz, T., Daniels, L. M., Stupnisky, R. H., & Perry, R. P. (2010). Boredom in achievement settings: Exploring control-value antecedents and performance outcomes of a neglected emotion. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102, 531–549.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0019243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Pekrun, R., Goetz, T., Titz, W., & Perry, R. P. (2002). Academic emotions in students’ self-regulated learning and achievement: A program of qualitative and quantitative research. Educational Psychologist, 37, 91–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Pekrun, R., Lichtenfeld, S., Marsh, H. W., Kurayama, K., & Goetz, T. (2017). Achievement emotions and academic performance: Longitudinal models of reciprocal effects. Child Development, 88, 1653–1670.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Pekrun, R., & Linnenbrink-Garcia, L. (2014). Handbook of emotions and education. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  55. Pekrun, R., & Perry, R. P. (2015). Control-value theory of achievement emotions. In R. Pekrun & L. Linnenbrink-Garcia (Eds.), Handbook of emotions and education (pp. 120–141). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  56. Pekrun, R., & Stephens, E. J. (2010). Achievement emotions: A control-value approach. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 4, 238–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Perry, R. P., & Penner, K. S. (1990). Enhancing academic achievement in college students through attributional retraining and instruction. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 262–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Poulos, A., & Mahony, M. J. (2008). Effectiveness of feedback: The students’ perspective. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 33, 143–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Roseman, I., Spindel, M. S., & Jose, P. E. (1990). Appraisals of emotion-eliciting events: Testing a theory of discrete emotions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59, 899–915.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Sansone, C., Sachau, D. A., & Weir, C. (1989). Effects of instruction on intrinsic interest: The importance of context. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 819–829.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Scherer, K. R. (1993). Studying the emotion-antecedent appraisal process: An expert system approach. Cognition & Emotion, 7, 325–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Scherer, K. R., & Wallbott, H. G. (1994). Evidence for universality and cultural variation of differential emotion response patterning. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 310–328.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Schmidt, S., Tinti, C., Levine, L. J., & Testa, S. (2010). Appraisals, emotions and emotion regulation: An integrative approach. Motivation and Emotion, 34, 63–72.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. Schutz, P. A., & Davis, H. A. (2000). Emotions and self-regulation during test taking. Educational Psychologist, 35, 243–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Schutz, P. A., & DeCuir, J. T. (2002). Inquiry on emotions in education. Educational Psychologist, 37, 125–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Shute, V. J. (2008). Focus on formative feedback. Review of Educational Research, 78, 153–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Siemer, M., Mauss, I., & Gross, J. J. (2007). Same situation—different emotions: How appraisals shape our emotions. Emotion, 7, 592–600.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Smith, C. A., & Ellsworth, P. C. (1985). Patterns of cognitive appraisal in emotion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48, 813–838.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Smith, C. A., & Lazarus, R. S. (1993). Appraisal components, core relational themes, and the emotions. Cognition & Emotion, 7, 233–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Smith, E. R., & Neumann, R. (2005). Emotion processes considered from the perspective of dual-process models. In L. F. Barrett, P. M. Niedenthal & P. Winkielman (Eds.), Emotion and consciousness (pp. 287–311). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  71. Stupnisky, R. H., Stewart, T. L., Daniels, L. M., & Perry, R. P. (2011). When do students ask why? Examining the precursors and outcomes of causal search among first-year college students. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 36, 201–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Turner, J. E., & Schallert, D. L. (2001). Expectancy-value relationships of shame reactions and shame resiliency. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93, 320–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Tze, V. M. C., Klassen, R. M., & Daniels, L. M. (2014). Patterns of boredom and its relationship with perceived autonomy support and engagement. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 39, 175–187.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2014.05.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Vallerand, R. J., & Reid, G. (1984). On the causal effects of perceived competence on intrinsic motivation: A test of cognitive evaluation theory. Journal of Sport Psychology, 6, 94–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Van der Kleij, F. M., Feskens, R. C., & Eggen, T. J. (2015). Effects of feedback in a computer-based learning environment on students’ learning outcomes: A meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 85, 475–511.  https://doi.org/10.3102/0034654314564881.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Verduyn, P., Van Mechelen, I., Tuerlinckx, F., & Scherer, K. (2013). The relation between appraised mismatch and the duration of negative emotions: Evidence for universality. European Journal of Personality, 27, 481–494.Google Scholar
  77. Weiner, B. (1986). Attribution, emotion, and action. In R. M. Sorrentino & E. T. Higgins (Eds.), Handbook of motivation and cognition (pp. 281–312). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  78. Wentzel, K. R. (2000). What is it I’m trying to achieve? Classroom goals form a content perspective. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25, 105–115.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Wollenschläger, M., Hattie, J., Machts, N., Möller, J., & Harms, U. (2016). What makes rubrics effective in teacher-feedback? Transparency of learning goals is not enough. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 44, 1–11.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2015.11.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Yeager, D. S., Purdie-Vaughns, V., Garcia, J., Apfel, N., Brzustoski, P., Master, A., … & Cohen, G. L. (2014). Breaking the cycle of mistrust: Wise interventions to provide critical feedback across the racial divide. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 143, 804–824.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Curriculum and InstructionTexas State UniversitySan MarcosUSA
  2. 2.Department of Educational PsychologyThe University of Texas at AustinAustinUSA
  3. 3.Department of Educational PsychologyUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA

Personalised recommendations