Motivation and Emotion

, Volume 40, Issue 2, pp 226–242 | Cite as

Why individuals want money is what matters: Using self-determination theory to explain the differential relationship between motives for making money and employee psychological health

  • Anaïs Thibault Landry
  • Julian Kindlein
  • Sarah-Geneviève Trépanier
  • Jacques ForestEmail author
  • Drea Zigarmi
  • Dobie Houson
  • Felix C. Brodbeck
Original Paper


Researchers have debated for years whether money can lead to happiness. Indeed, the findings to date are contradictory in regard to the impact of individuals’ motives for making money on their psychological well-being. This study aimed to reconcile these findings and show that certain motives for making money can be beneficial to individuals’ psychological health, while others can be detrimental, not only by reducing well-being, but also by increasing ill-being. Based on self-determination theory, basic psychological needs (autonomy, competence, and relatedness) were hypothesized to be the psychological mechanism explaining these differential effects. More precisely, need satisfaction and need frustration were hypothesized to mediate the relationship between employees’ money motives and psychological health (well-being and ill-being). Our findings suggest that self-integrated motives for making money lead to greater well-being and lesser ill-being by positively predicting need satisfaction and negatively predicting need frustration. On the other hand, non-integrated motives for making money appear to result in lesser well-being and greater ill-being by being negatively associated with need satisfaction and positively associated with need frustration. Together, these findings suggest that money motives can have differential effects on employees’ psychological health depending on whether these underlying reasons are need-satisfying or need-frustrating life goals.


Motives Money Self-determination theory Need satisfaction Need frustration 



The research was facilitated by a grant from the “Fondation de l’Ordre des conseillers en ressources humaines agréés” to the fourth author.

Compliance with ethical standards

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in the current studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.


  1. Aknin, L. B., Norton, M. I., & Dunn, E. W. (2009). From wealth to well-being? Money matters, but less than people think. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 4(6), 523–527. doi: 10.1080/17439760903271421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ashkanasy, N. M. (2011). International happiness: A multilevel perspective. The Academy of Management Perspectives, 25(1), 23–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Banerjee, R., & Dittmar, H. (2008). Individual differences in children’s materialism: The role of peer relations. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34, 17–31. doi: 10.1177/0146167207309196.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bartholomew, K. J., Ntoumanis, N., Cuevas, R., & Lonsdale, C. (2014). Job pressure and ill-health in physical education teachers: The mediating role of psychological need thwarting. Teaching and Teacher Education, 37, 101–107. doi: 10.1016/j.tate.2013.10.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bartholomew, K. J., Ntoumanis, N., Ryan, R. M., Bosch, J. A., & Thøgersen-Ntoumani, C. (2011a). Self-determination theory and diminished functioning: The role of interpersonal control and psychological need thwarting. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 37, 1459–1473. doi: 10.1177/0146167211413125.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bartholomew, K. J., Ntoumanis, N., Ryan, R. M., & Thøgersen-Ntoumani, C. (2011b). Psychological need thwarting in the sport context: Assessing the darker side of athletic experience. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 33, 75–102. doi: 10.1037/t00804-000.Google Scholar
  7. Biljeveld, E., & Aarts, H. (2014). The psychological science of money. New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
  8. Blanchflower, D. G., & Oswald, A. J. (2011). International happiness: A new view on the measure of performance. The Academy of Management Perspectives, 25(1), 6–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brown, K. W., Kasser, T., Ryan, R. M., Alex Linley, P., & Orzech, K. (2009). When what one has is enough: Mindfulness, financial desire discrepancy, and subjective well-being. Journal of Research in Personality, 43(5), 727–736. doi: 10.1016/j.jrp.2009.07.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Browne, M. W., & Cudeck, R. (1993). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In K. A. Bollen & J. S. Long (Eds.), Testing structural equation models (pp. 136–162). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  11. Burke, R. J. (2004). Workaholism, self-esteem, and motives for money. Psychological Reports, 94, 457–463. doi: 10.2466/PR0.94.2.457-463.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Byrne, B. M. (2012). Structural equation modeling with Mplus: Basic concepts, applications, and programming. New York: Routledge Academic.Google Scholar
  13. Carter, T. J. (2014). The psychological science of spending money. In E. Bijleveld & H. Aarts (Eds.), The psychological science of money (pp. 213–242). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  14. Carver, C. S., & Baird, E. (1998). The American dream revisited: Is it what you want or why you want it that matters? Psychological Science, 9, 289–292. doi: 10.1111/1467-9280.00057.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chan, D. (2009). So why ask me? Are self-report data really that bad? In C. E. Lance & R. J. Vandenberg (Eds.), Statistical and methodological myths and urban legends: Doctrine, verity and fable in the organizational and social sciences (pp. 309–336). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  16. Chirkov, V. I., Sheldon, K. M., & Ryan, R. M. (2011). The struggle for happiness and autonomy in cultural and personal contexts: An overview. Human Autonomy in Cross-cultural Context,. doi: 10.1007/978-90-481-9667-8_1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cole, J. C., Rabin, A. S., Smith, T. L., & Kaufman, A. S. (2004). Development and validation of a Rasch-derived CES-D short form. Psychological Assessment, 16, 360–372. doi: 10.1037/1040-3590.16.4.360.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Conway, J. M., & Lance, C. E. (2010). What reviewers should expect from authors regarding common method bias in organizational research. Journal of Business and Psychology, 25(3), 325–334. doi: 10.1007/s10869-010-9181-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Costello, A. B. & Osborne, J. W. (2005). Best practices in exploratory factor analysis: Four recommendations for getting the most from your analysis. Practical Assessment Research & Evaluation, 10(7).
  20. De Cooman, R., De Gieter, S., Pepermans, R., & Jegers, M. (2009). A cross-sector comparison of motivation-related concepts in for-profit and not-for-profit service organizations. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly. doi: 10.1016/j.jvb.2008.10.010.Google Scholar
  21. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The “what” and “why” of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227–268. doi: 10.1207/S15327965PLI1104_01.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Diener, E., & Biswas-Diener, R. (2002). Will money increase subjective well-being? Social Indicators Research, 57(2), 119–169. doi: 10.1023/A:1014411319119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49, 71–75. doi: 10.1207/s15327752jpa4901_13.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Diener, E., Tay, L., & Oishi, S. (2013). Rising income and the subjective well-being of nations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 104(2), 267. doi: 10.1037/a0030487.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Dunn, E. W., Gilbert, D. T., & Wilson, T. D. (2011). If money doesn’t make you happy, then you probably aren’t spending it right. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 21(2), 115–125. doi: 10.1016/j.jcps.2011.02.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Floyd, F. J., & Widaman, K. F. (1995). Factor analysis in the development and refinement of clinical assessment instruments. Psychological Assessment, 7, 286–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Furnham, A., & Argyle, M. (1998). The psychology of money. London: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  28. Gagné, M., Forest, J., Vansteenkiste, M., Crevier-Braud, L., Van den Broeck, A., Aspeli, A. K., et al. (2015). The Multidimensional Work Motivation Scale: Validation evidence in seven languages and nine countries. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 24(2), 178–196. doi: 10.1080/1359432x.2013.877892.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Garđarsdóttir, R. B., Dittmar, H., & Aspinall, C. (2009). It’s not the money, it’s the quest for a happier self: The role of happiness and success motives in the link between financial goals and subjective well-being. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 28, 1100–1127. doi: 10.1521/jscp.2009.28.9.1100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Giacomantonio, M., Mannetti, L., & Pierro, A. (2013). Locomoting toward well-being or getting entangled in a material world: Regulatory modes and affective well-being. Journal of Economic Psychology, 38, 80–89. doi: 10.1016/j.joep.2012.07.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gillet, N., Fouquereau, E., Forest, J., Brunault, P., & Colombat, P. (2012a). The impact of organizational factors on psychological needs and their relations with well-being. Journal of Business and Psychology, 27, 437–450. doi: 10.1007/s10869-011-9253-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gillet, N., Fouquereau, E., Lequeurre, J., Bigot, L., & Mokounkolo, R. (2012b). Validation d’une Échelle de Frustration des Besoins Psychologiques au Travail (EFBPT). Psychologie du Travail et des Organisations, 18, 328–344.Google Scholar
  33. Goulet, L. R., & Frank, M. L. (2002). Organizational commitment across three sectors: Public, non-profit, and for-profit. Public Personnel Management, 31(2), 201–210. doi: 10.1177/009102600203100206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Grouzet, F. M., Kasser, T., Ahuvia, A., Dols, J. M., Kim, Y., Lau, S., et al. (2005). The structure of goal contents across 15 cultures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89(5), 800–816. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.89.5.800.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Gunnell, K. E., Crocker, P. R. E., Mack, D. E., Wilson, P. M., & Zumbo, B. D. (2014). Goal contents, motivation, psychological need satisfaction, well-being and physical activity: A test of self-determination theory over 6 months. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 15(1), 19–29. doi: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2013.08.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gunnell, K. E., Crocker, P. R. E., Wilson, P. M., Mack, D. E., & Zumbo, B. D. (2013). Psychological need satisfaction and thwarting: A test of basic psychological needs theory in physical activity contexts. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 14, 599–607. doi: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2013.03.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hambleton, R. K. (1993). Translating achievement tests for use in cross-national studies. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 9, 57–68.Google Scholar
  38. Hancock, G. R., & Mueller, R. O. (2001). Rethinking construct reliability within latent systems. In R. Cudeck, S. du Toit, & D. Sörbom (Eds.), Structural equation modeling: Present and future—A festschrift in honor of Karl Jöreskog (pp. 195–216). Lincolnwood, IL: Scientific Software International.Google Scholar
  39. Hofer, J., & Busch, H. (2011). Satisfying one’s needs for competence and relatedness consequent domain-specific well-being depends on strength of implicit motives. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 37(9), 1147–1158. doi: 10.1177/0146167211408329.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Hogg, M. A., & Terry, D. I. (2000). Social identity and self-categorization processes in organizational contexts. Academy of Management Review, 25(1), 121–140.Google Scholar
  41. Howell, R. T., & Hill, G. (2009). The mediators of experiential purchases: Determining the impact of psychological needs satisfaction and social comparison. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 4(6), 511–522. doi: 10.1080/17439760903270993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Howell, R. T., Kurai, M., & Tam, L. (2013). Money buys financial security and psychological need satisfaction: Testing need theory in affluence. Social Indicators Research, 110(1), 17–29. doi: 10.1007/s11205-010-9774-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hoyle, R. H. (1995). Structural equation modeling: Concepts, issues, and applications. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  44. Hu, L.-T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6(1), 1–55. doi: 10.1080/10705519909540118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kahneman, D., Krueger, A. B., Schkade, D., Schwarz, N., & Stone, A. A. (2006). Would you be happier if you were richer? A focusing illusion. Science, 312(5782), 1908–1910. doi: 10.1126/science.1129688.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Kasser, T. (2002). Sketches for a self-determination theory of values. In E. L. Deci & R. M. Ryan (Eds.), Handbook of self-determination research (pp. 123–140). Rochester, NY: University Of Rochester Press.Google Scholar
  47. Kasser, T. (2011). Cultural values and the well-being of future generations: A cross-national study. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 42(2), 206–215. doi: 10.1177/0022022110396865.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kasser, T., & Ahuvia, A. (2002). Materialistic values and well-being in business students. European Journal of Social Psychology, 32(1), 137–146. doi: 10.1002/Ejsp.85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kasser, T., Kanner, A. D., Cohn, S., & Ryan, R. M. (2007). Psychology and American corporate capitalism: Further reflections and future directions. Psychological Inquiry, 18(1), 60–71. doi: 10.1080/10478400701459103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kasser, T., Rosenblum, K. L., Sameroff, A. J., Deci, E. L., Niemiec, C. P., Ryan, R. M., et al. (2014). Changes in materialism, changes in psychological well-being: Evidence from three longitudinal studies and an intervention experiment. Motivation and Emotion, 38(1), 1–22. doi: 10.1007/s11031-013-9371-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kasser, T., & Ryan, R. M. (1993). A dark side of the American dream: Correlates of financial success as a central life aspiration. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 410–422. doi: 10.1037//0022-3514.65.2.410.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Kasser, T., & Ryan, R. M. (1996). Further examining the American dream: Differential correlates of intrinsic and extrinsic goals. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 22, 280–287. doi: 10.1177/0146167296223006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kiatpongsan, S., & Norton, M. I. (2014). How much (more) should CEOs make? A universal desire for more equal pay. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 9(6), 587–593. doi: 10.1177/1745691614549773.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Lavigne, G. L., Vallerand, R. J., & Crevier-Braud, L. (2011). The fundamental need to belong: On the distinction between growth and deficit-reduction orientations. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 37(9), 1185–1201. doi: 10.1177/0146167211405995.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Lea, S. E. G., & Webley, P. (2014). Money: Metaphors and motives. In E. Bijleveld & H. Aarts (Eds.), The psychological science of money (pp. 21–35). New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
  56. Lim, V. K., & Sng, Q. S. (2006). Does parental job insecurity matter? Money anxiety, money motives, and work motivation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(5), 1078–1087. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.91.5.1078.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. MacKinnon, D. P., Lockwood, C. M., & Williams, J. (2004). Confidence limits for the indirect effect: Distribution of the product and resampling methods. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 39(1), 99–128. doi: 10.1207/s15327906mbr3901_4.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Mead, N. L., Baumeister, R. F., Stillman, T. F., Rawn, C. D., & Vohs, K. D. (2011). Social exclusion causes people to spend and consume in the service of affiliation. Journal of Consumer Research, 37, 902–919.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Mead, N. L., & Stuppy, A. (2014). Money can promote or hinder interpersonal harmony. In E. Bijleveld & H. Aarts (Eds.), The psychological science of money (pp. 243–262).Google Scholar
  60. Milkovich, G., & Newman, J. (2007). Compensation (9th ed.). New York, NY: Irwin/McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  61. Mirvis, P. H., & Hackett, E. J. (1983). Work and workforce characteristics in the nonprofit sector. Monthly Labor Review, 106, 3–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Moller, A. C., & Deci, E. L. (2014). The psychology of getting paid: An integrated perspective. In E. Bijleveld & H. Aarts (Eds.), The psychological science of money (pp. 189–211). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  63. Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2012). Mplus user’s guide (6th ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.Google Scholar
  64. Nicolao, L., Irwin, J., & Goodman, J. (2009). Happiness for sale: Do experiential purchases make consumers happier than material purchases? Journal of Consumer Research, 36, 188–198. doi: 10.1086/597049.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Niemiec, C. P., Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2009). The path taken: Consequences of attaining intrinsic and extrinsic aspirations in post-college life. Journal of Research in Personality, 43(3), 291–306. doi: 10.1016/j.jrp.2008.09.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J.-Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 879–903.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2012). Sources of method bias in social science research and recommendations on how to control it. Annual Review of Psychology, 63, 539–569. doi: 10.1146/annurev-psych-120710-100452.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2008). Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behavior Research Methods, 40(3), 879–891. doi: 10.3758/BRM.40.3.879.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Robak, R. W., Chiffriller, S. H., & Zappone, M. C. (2007). College student’s motivations for making money and subjective well-being. Psychological Reports, 100, 147–156. doi: 10.2466/pr0.100.1.147-156.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Ryff, C. D., Love, G. D., Urry, H. L., Muller, D., Rosenkranz, M. A., Friedman, E. M., & Singer, B. (2006). Psychological well-being and ill-being: Do they have distinct or mirrored biological correlates? Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 75, 85–95. doi: 10.1159/000090892.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Sacks, D. W., Stevenson, B., & Wolfers, J. (2012). The new stylized facts about income and subjective well-being. Emotion, 12(6), 1181. doi: 10.1037/a0029873.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Schumacher, R. E., & Lomax, R. G. (1996a). A beginner’s guide to SEM. New Jersey: Mahwah.Google Scholar
  73. Schumacher, R. E., & Lomax, R. G. (1996b). A beginner’s guide to structural equation modeling. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.Google Scholar
  74. Sheldon, K. M., Cheng, C., & Hilpert, J. (2011). Understanding well-being and optimal functioning: Applying the Multilevel Personality in Context (MPIC) model. Psychological Inquiry, 22(1), 1–16. doi: 10.1080/1047840x.2011.532477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Sheldon, K. M., & Elliot, A. J. (1999). Goal striving, need satisfaction, and longitudinal well-being: The self-concordance model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76(3), 482–497. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.76.3.482.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Sheldon, K. M., & Hilpert, J. C. (2012). The Balanced Measure of Psychological Needs (BMPN) scale: An alternative domain general measure of need satisfaction. Motivation and Emotion, 36, 439–451. doi: 10.1007/s11031-012-9279-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Sheldon, K. M., Ryan, R. M., Deci, E. L., & Kasser, T. (2004). The independent effects of goal contents and motives on well-being: It’s both what you pursue and why you pursue it. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30, 475–486. doi: 10.1177/0146167203261883.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Sirgy, M. J. (1998). Materialism and quality of life. Social Indicators Research, 43(3), 227–260. doi: 10.1023/A:1006820429653.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Srivastava, A., Locke, E. A., & Bartol, K. M. (2001). Money and subjective well-being: It’s not the money, it’s the motives. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80, 959–971. doi: 10.1037//0022-3514.80.6.959.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Tang, T. L.-P., & Chiu, R. K. (2003). Income, money ethic, pay satisfaction, commitment and unethical behavior: Is the love of money the root of evil for Hong Kong employees? Journal of Business Ethics, 46, 13–30. doi: 10.1023/A:1024731611490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Thompson, E. R. (2007). Development and validation of an internationally reliable short-form of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 38(2), 227–242. doi: 10.1177/0022022106297301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Trépanier, S.-G., Forest, J., Fernet, C., & Austin, S. (2015). On the psychological and motivational processes linking job characteristics to employee functioning: Insights from self-determination theory. Work and Stress. doi: 10.1080/02678373.2015.1074957.Google Scholar
  83. Tsui, A. S., & O’reilly, C. A. (1989). Beyond simple demographic effects: The importance of relational demography in superior-subordinate dyads. Academy of Management Journal, 32(2), 402–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Vallerand, R. J. (1989). Vers une méthodologie de validation trans-culturelle de questionnaires psychologiques: Implications pour la recherche en langue française. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie Canadienne, 30(4), 662–680.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Van de Broeck, A., Vansteenkiste, M., De Witte, H., Soenens, B., & Lens, W. (2010). Capturing autonomy, competence, and relatedness at work: Construction and initial validation of the Work-related Basic Need Satisfaction scale. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 83(4), 981–1002. doi: 10.1348/096317909X481382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Van den Broeck, A., Vansteenkiste, M., & De Witte, H. (2008a). Self-determination theory: A theoretical and empirical overview in occupational health psychology. In J. Houdmont & S. Leka (Eds.), Occupational health psychology (Vol. 3, pp. 63–88). European perspectives on research, education, and practice. Nottingham: University Press.Google Scholar
  87. Van den Broeck, A., Vansteenkiste, M., De Witte, H., & Lens, W. (2008b). Explaining the relationships between job characteristics, burnout, and engagement: The role of basic psychological need satisfaction. Work & Stress, 22(3), 277–294. doi: 10.1080/02678370802393672.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Vansteenkiste, M., & Ryan, R. M. (2013). On psychological growth and vulnerability: Basic psychological need satisfaction and need frustration as a unifying principle. Journal of Psychotherapy Integration, 23, 263–280. doi: 10.1037/a0032359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Vohs, K. D., Mead, N. L., & Goode, M. R. (2006). The psychological consequences of money. Science, 314, 1154–1156. doi: 10.1126/science.1132491.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Vohs, K. D., Mead, N. L., & Goode, M. R. (2008). Merely activating the concept of money changes personal and interpersonal behavior. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 17, 208–212. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8721.2008.00576.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anaïs Thibault Landry
    • 1
  • Julian Kindlein
    • 2
  • Sarah-Geneviève Trépanier
    • 1
  • Jacques Forest
    • 3
    Email author
  • Drea Zigarmi
    • 4
    • 5
  • Dobie Houson
    • 5
  • Felix C. Brodbeck
    • 2
  1. 1.Université du Québec à MontréalMontréalCanada
  2. 2.Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität MünchenMunichGermany
  3. 3.ORH DepartmentESG UQAMMontréalCanada
  4. 4.University of San DiegoSan DiegoUSA
  5. 5.Ken Blanchard CompaniesEscondidoUSA

Personalised recommendations