Advertisement

Motivation and Emotion

, Volume 40, Issue 2, pp 300–308 | Cite as

Anhedonic symptoms of depression are linked to reduced motivation to obtain a reward

  • Jessica Franzen
  • Kerstin Brinkmann
Original Paper

Abstract

People with depression report reduced motivation to obtain a reward and reduced affective responses to reward. However, studies focusing on the relation between anhedonia and deficits in reward processing are scarce. Furthermore, studies investigating wanting through cardiovascular reactivity and liking through facial electromyography in human beings are also scarce. In this study, we used the Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale score as a continuous predictor variable of anhedonia and we manipulated two within-person conditions (wanting vs. liking). Participants earned money if their performance on a memory task exceeded a particular standard. As expected, effort-related cardiovascular reactivity and self-reports during the anticipatory phase were lower for participants scoring high on anhedonia. Moreover, task performance outcomes were worse for highly anhedonic participants. However, the zygomaticus major muscle’s activity during the consummatory phase was unrelated to the anhedonia score. The present study underlines the importance of anhedonic symptoms, particularly in reduced anticipatory motivation to obtain a reward.

Keywords

Anhedonia Depression Reward wanting and liking Cardiovascular reactivity Muscular reactivity 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Jessica Franzen, Kerstin Brinkmann, Geneva Motivation Lab, University of Geneva, Switzerland. This research was supported by a research grant from the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNF 100014-134557) awarded to the second author. Parts of the present research were presented at the 26th Annual Convention of the Association for Psychological Science, San Francisco, CA, May 23–25, 2014.

References

  1. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5) (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  2. Belani, K., Ozaki, M., Hynson, J., Hartmann, T., Reyford, H., Martino, J. M., et al. (1999). A new noninvasive method to measure blood pressure: Results of a multicenter trial. Anesthesiology, 91, 686–692. doi: 10.1097/00000542-199909000-00021.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Berntson, G. G., Lozano, D. L., Chen, Y.-J., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2004). Where to Q in PEP. Psychophysiology, 41, 333–337. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8986.2004.00156.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Berridge, K. C. (2003). Pleasures of the brain. Brain and Cognition, 52, 106–128. doi: 10.1016/S0278-2626(03)00014-9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Berridge, K. C., & Kringelbach, M. L. (2008). Affective neuroscience of pleasure: Reward in humans and animals. Psychopharmacology (Berl), 199, 457–480. doi: 10.1007/s00213-008-1099-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Berridge, K. C., & Robinson, T. E. (1998). What is the role of dopamine in reward: Hedonic impact, reward learning, or incentive salience? Brain Research Reviews, 28, 309–369. doi: 10.1016/S0165-0173(98)00019-8.
  7. Brehm, J. W., & Self, E. A. (1989). The intensity of motivation. Annual Review of Psychology, 40, 109–131. doi: 10.1146/annurev.ps.40.020189.000545.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Brinkmann, K., & Franzen, J. (2013). Not everyone’s heart contracts to reward: Insensitivity to varying levels of reward in dysphoria. Biological Psychology, 94, 263–271. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsycho.2013.07.003.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Brinkmann, K., Franzen, J., Rossier, C., & Gendolla, G. H. E. (2014). I don’t care about others’ approval: Dysphoric individuals show reduced effort mobilization for obtaining a social reward. Motivation and Emotion, 38, 790–801. doi: 10.1007/s11031-014-9437-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brinkmann, K., Schüpbach, L., Ancel Joye, I., & Gendolla, G. H. E. (2009). Anhedonia and effort mobilization in dysphoria: Reduced cardiovascular response to reward and punishment. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 74, 250–258. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2009.09.009.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Cacioppo, J. T., Petty, R. E., Losch, M. E., & Kim, H. S. (1986). Electromyographic activity over facial muscle regions can differentiate the valence and intensity of affective reactions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 260–268. doi: 10.1037//0022-3514.50.2.260.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Chentsova-Dutton, Y., & Hanley, K. (2010). The effects of anhedonia and depression on hedonic responses. Psychiatry Research, 179, 176–180. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2009.06.013.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Dichter, G. S., Kozink, R. V., McClernon, F. J., & Smoski, M. J. (2012). Remitted major depression is characterized by reward network hyperactivation during reward anticipation and hypoactivation during reward outcomes. Journal of Affective Disorders, 136, 1126–1134. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2011.09.048.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Fiorito, E. R., & Simons, R. F. (1994). Emotional imagery and physical anhedonia. Psychophysiology, 31, 513–521. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8986.1994.tb01055.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Forbes, E. E., Hariri, A. R., Martin, S. L., Silk, J. S., Moyles, D. L., Fisher, P. M., et al. (2009). Altered striatal activation predicting real-world positive affect in adolescent major depressive disorder. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 166, 64–73. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2008.07081336.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Franzen, J., & Brinkmann, K. (2015). Blunted cardiovascular reactivity in dysphoria during reward and punishment anticipation. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 95, 270–277. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2014.11.007.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Fridlund, A. J., & Cacioppo, J. T. (1986). Guidelines for human electromyographic research. Psychophysiology, 23, 567–589. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8986.1986.tb00676.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Gard, D. E., Gard, M. G., Kring, A. M., & John, O. P. (2006). Anticipatory and consummatory components of the experience of pleasure: A scale development study. Journal of Research in Personality, 40, 1086–1102. doi: 10.1016/j.jrp.2005.11.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gendolla, G. H. E., & Wright, R. A. (2009). Effort. In D. Sander & K. R. Scherer (Eds.), Oxford companion to emotion and the affective sciences (pp. 134–135). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Ho, N., & Sommers, M. (2013). Anhedonia: A concept analysis. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 27, 121–129. doi: 10.1016/j.apnu.2013.02.001.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Kelsey, R. M., Ornduff, S. R., & Alpert, B. S. (2007). Reliability of cardiovascular reactivity to stress: Internal consistency. Psychophysiology, 44, 216–225. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8986.2007.00499.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Klein, D. F. (1984). Depression and anhedonia. In D. Clark & J. Fawcett (Eds.), Anhedonia and deficit states (pp. 1–14). New York: PMA Publishing.Google Scholar
  23. Lewinsohn, P. M., Pettit, J. W., Joiner, T. E., & Seeley, J. R. (2003). The symptomatic expression of major depressive disorder in adolescents and young adults. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 112, 244–252. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.112.2.244.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Llabre, M. M., Spitzer, S. B., Saab, P. G., Ironson, G. H., & Schneiderman, N. (1991). The reliability and specificity of delta versus residualized change as measure of cardiovascular reactivity to behavioral challenges. Psychophysiology, 28, 701–711. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8986.1991.tb01017.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Loas, G. (1996). Vulnerability to depression: A model centered on anhedonia. Journal of Affective Disorders, 41, 39–53. doi: 10.1016/0165-0327(96)00065-1.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Loas, G., Monestes, J.-L., Ameller, A., Bubrovszky, M., Yon, V., Wallier, J., et al. (2009). Traduction et étude de validation de la version française de l’échelle temporelle du plaisir (EETP, Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale [TEPS], Gard et ala., 2006): Etude chez 125 étudiants et chez 162 sujets présentant un trouble psychiatrique. Annales Médico-Psychologiques, 167, 641–648. doi: 10.1016/j.amp.2009.09.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Papillo, J. F., & Shapiro, D. (1990). The cardiovascular system. In L. G. Tassinary & J. T. Cacioppo (Eds.), Principles of psychophysiology: Physical, social, and inferential elements (pp. 456–512). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Pizzagalli, D. A., Iosifescu, D., Hallett, L. A., Ratner, K. G., & Fava, M. (2009). Reduced hedonic capacity in major depressive disorder: Evidence from a probabilistic reward task. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 43, 76–87. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2008.03.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Radloff, L. S. (1977). The CES-D scale: A self report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1, 385–401. doi: 10.1177/014662167700100306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ribot, T. (1897). The psychology of the emotions. London: W. Scott Pub. Co.Google Scholar
  31. Richter, M. (2009). Bluebox (version 1.24) [computer software].Google Scholar
  32. Richter, M. (2012). Cardiovascular response to reward. In R. A. Wright & G. H. E. Gendolla (Eds.), How motivation affects cardiovascular response: Mechanisms and applications (pp. 79–91). Washington, DC: APA Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Richter, M., & Gendolla, G. H. E. (2006). Incentive effects on cardiovascular reactivity in active coping with unclear task difficulty. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 61, 216–225. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2005.10.003.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Richter, M., & Gendolla, G. H. E. (2007). Incentive value, unclear task difficulty, and cardiovascular reactivity in active coping. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 63, 294–301. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2006.12.002.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Richter, M., & Gendolla, G. H. E. (2009). The heart contracts to reward: Monetary incentives and preejection period. Psychophysiology, 46, 451–457. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8986.2009.00795.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Scherhag, A., Kaden, J. J., & Kentschke, E. (2005). Comparison of impedance cardiography and thermodilution-derived measurements of stroke volume and cardiac output at rest and during exercise testing. Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy, 19, 141–147. doi: 10.1007/s10557-005-1048-0.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Sherdell, L., Waugh, C. E., & Gotlib, I. H. (2012). Anticipatory pleasure predicts motivation for reward in major depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 121, 51–60. doi: 10.1037/a0024945.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Sherwood, A., Allen, M. T., Fahrenberg, J., Kesley, R. M., Lovallo, W. R., & Van Doornen, L. J. P. (1990). Methodological guidelines for impedance cardiography. Psychophysiology, 27, 1–23. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8986.1990.tb02171.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Shrout, P. E., & Fleiss, J. L. (1979). Intraclass correlations: Uses in assessing rater reliability. Psychological Bulletin, 86, 420–428. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.86.2.420.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Sloan, D. M., Bradley, M. M., Dimoulas, E., & Lang, P. J. (2002). Looking at facial expressions: Dysphoria and facial EMG. Biological Psychology, 60, 79–90. doi: 10.1016/S0301-0511(02)00044-3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Smoski, M. J., Rittenberg, A., & Dichter, G. S. (2011). Major depressive disorder is characterized by greater reward network activation to monetary than pleasant image rewards. Psychiatry Research, 194, 263–270. doi: 10.1016/j.pscychresns.2011.06.012.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Sternberg, S. (1966). High-speed scanning in human memory. Science, 153, 652–654. doi: 10.1126/science.153.3736.652.tle.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Tassinary, L. G., Cacioppo, J. T., & Vanman, E. J. (2007). The skeletomotor systeme: Surface electromyography. In J. T. Cacioppo, L. G. Tassinary, & G. G. Berntson (Eds.), Handbook of psychophysiology (3rd ed., pp. 267–299). New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Thomsen, K. R., Whybrow, P. C., & Kringelbach, M. L. (2015). Reconceptualizing anhedonia: Novel perspectives on balancing the pleasure networks in the human brain. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 9, 1–23. doi: 10.3389/fnbeh.2015.00049.Google Scholar
  45. Tibboel, H., De Houwer, J., Spruyt, A., Field, M., Kemps, E., & Crombez, G. (2011). Testing the validity of implicit measures of wanting and liking. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 42, 284–292. doi: 10.1016/j.jbtep.2011.01.002.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Treadway, M. T., Bossaller, N. A., Shelton, R. C., & Zald, D. H. (2012). Effort-based decision-making in major depressive disorder: A translational model of motivational anhedonia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 121, 553–558. doi: 10.1037/a0028813.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Treadway, M. T., & Zald, D. H. (2011). Reconsidering anhedonia in depression: Lessons from translational neuroscience. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 35, 537–555. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2010.06.006.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Wright, R. A. (1996). Brehm’s theory of motivation as a model of effort and cardiovascular response. In P. M. Gollwitzer & J. A. Bargh (Eds.), The psychology of action: Linking cognition and motivation to behavior (pp. 424–453). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  49. Wright, R. A., Killebrew, K., & Pimpalapure, D. (2002). Cardiovascular incentive effects where a challenge is unfixed: Demonstrations involving social evaluation, evaluator status, and monetary reward. Psychophysiology, 39, 188–197. doi: 10.1017/S0048577202011137.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Wright, R. A., & Kirby, L. D. (2001). Effort determination of cardiovascular response: An integrative analysis with applications in social psychology. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (pp. 255–307). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Geneva Motivation Lab, FPSE, Department of PsychologyUniversity of GenevaGeneva 4Switzerland

Personalised recommendations