Motivation and Emotion

, Volume 38, Issue 6, pp 855–865 | Cite as

Effects of deterrence on intensity of group identification and efforts to protect group identity

  • Giuseppe Pantaleo
  • Anca M. Miron
  • Mark A. Ferguson
  • Scott D. Frankowski
Original Paper


Group identification serves important functions such as motivating group members to work towards group goals and sustaining their efforts to maintain a positive group identity. Thus increasing or decreasing group identification has implications for group members’ commitment to achieving group goals. We propose that group identification and group-level efforts to protect group identity can be reduced or enhanced by deterrents to feeling identified with the ingroup. To test this idea, we exposed participants to different types of deterrents to group identification: a reason for not liking the ingroup (Study 1), difficulty of achieving an ingroup goal (Study 2), and a threat to ingroup positive identity (Study 3). Group identification and strength of efforts to achieve a group goal increased with the strength of deterrence, to the point where it decreased in the strong deterrent condition. Implications for intergroup motivation and social identity are discussed.


Group identification Motivation Identity threats Deterrence Effort 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Giuseppe Pantaleo
    • 1
  • Anca M. Miron
    • 2
  • Mark A. Ferguson
    • 3
  • Scott D. Frankowski
    • 4
  1. 1.UniSR-Social.Lab, San Raffaele University of MilanMilanItaly
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of Wisconsin OshkoshOshkoshUSA
  3. 3.University of Wisconsin-Stevens PointStevens PointUSA
  4. 4.University of Texas at El PasoEl PasoUSA

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