Advertisement

Motivation and Emotion

, Volume 38, Issue 2, pp 235–251 | Cite as

Achievement goals and self-talk in physical education: The moderating role of perceived competence

  • Nikos ZourbanosEmail author
  • Athanasios Papaioannou
  • Evaggelia Argyropoulou
  • Antonis Hatzigeorgiadis
Original Paper

Abstract

Self-talk plays a key role in performance and self-regulation. One of the antecedents that may influence individual’s self-talk are achievement goal orientations. Three studies of 628, 313 and 1,169 participants were conducted to examine the relationships between positive and negative self-talk, perceived competence and achievement goals using two theoretical models of achievement goals. The participants completed the Automatic Self-Talk Questionnaire for Sports, the Task and Ego Orientation in Physical Education, the physical self-perception profile, and the Achievement Goal Questionnaire-Revised. The results revealed additive and interactive effects of achievement goals and perceived competence on students’ positive and negative self-talk. Overall, the results stressed the potential role of achievement goals and perceived competence as personal factors that influence students’ self-talk.

Keywords

Motivation Thoughts Students 

References

  1. Bentler, P. M., & Wu, E. J. C. (2004). EQS 6 for windows user’s guide. Encino, CA: Multivariate Software, Inc.Google Scholar
  2. Berk, L. E. (1992). Children’s private speech: An overview of theory and the status of research. In R. M. Diaz & L. E. Berk (Eds.), Private speech: From social interaction to self-regulation (pp. 17–53). Hove: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  3. Biddle, S. J. H., Wang, C. K. J., Kavussanu, M., & Spray, C. M. (2003). Correlates of achievement goal orientations in physical activity: A systematic review of research. European Journal of Sport Science, 3, 1–20. doi: 10.1080/17461390300073504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ciani, K. D., & Sheldon, K. M. (2010). Evaluating the mastery-avoidance goal construct: A study of elite college baseball players. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 11, 127–132. doi: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2009.04.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Conroy, D. E., & Metzler, J. N. (2004). Patterns of self-talk associated with different forms of competitive anxiety. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 26, 69–89.Google Scholar
  6. Crawford, J. R., & Henry, J. D. (2003). The Depression Anxiety Stress Scales: Normative data and latent structure in a large non-clinical sample. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 42, 111–131. doi: 10.1348/014466503321903544.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Csikszentmihaly, M. (1975). Beyond boredom and anxiety. Ca: Jossey Bass.Google Scholar
  8. Cury, F., Elliot, A., Sarrazin, P., Da Fonseca, D., & Rufo, M. (2002). The trichotomous achievement goal model and intrinsic motivation: A sequential mediational analysis. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 38, 473–481. doi: 10.1016/S0022-1031(02)00017-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Duda, J. L., & Hall, H. (2001). Achievement goal theory in sport: Recent extensions and future directions. In R. N. Singer, H. A. Hausenblas & C. M. Janelle (Eds.), Handbook of Sport Psychology (2nd ed, pp. 417–443). NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.Google Scholar
  10. Duda, J. L., & Nicholls, J. G. (1992). Dimensions of achievement motivation in schoolwork and sport. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84(3), 290–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Duda, J. L., & Whitehead, J. (1998). Measurement of goal perspectives in the physical domain. In J. L. Duda (Ed.), Advances in sport and exercise psychology measurement (pp. 21–48). Fitness Information Technology.Google Scholar
  12. Dweck, C. S., & Leggett, E. (1988). A social-cognitive approach to motivation & personality. Psychological Review, 95, 256–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Elliot, A. J. (2005). A conceptual history of the achievement goal construct. In A. Elliot & C. Dweck (Eds.), Handbook of competence and motivation (pp. 52–72). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  14. Elliot, A. J., & Church, M. A. (1997). A hierarchical model of approach and avoidance achievement motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 218–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Elliot, A. J., & McGregor, H. (2001). A 2 × 2 achievement goal framework. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80, 501–519.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Elliot, A. J., & Murayama, K. (2008). On the measurement of achievement goals: Critique, illustration, and application. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100(3), 613–628. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.100.3.613.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Elliot, A. J., Murayama, K., & Pekrun, R. P. (2011). A 3 × 2 achievement goal model. Journal of Educational Psychology, 103, 632–648.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Elliott, E. S., & Dweck, C. S. (1988). Goals: An approach to motivation and achievement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 5–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fox, K. R., & Corbin, C. B. (1989). The physical self-perception profile: Development and preliminary validation. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 11, 408–430.Google Scholar
  20. Guerrero, M. C. M. (2005). Inner speech-L2: Thinking words in a second language. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  21. Hardy, J., Oliver, E., & Tod, D. (2009). A framework for the study and application of self-talk in sport. In S. D. Mellalieu & S. Hanton (Eds.), Advances in applied sport psychology: A review (pp. 37–74). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  22. Harter, S. (1978). Effectance motivation reconsidered: Toward a developmental model. Human Development, 1, 34–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Harwood, C. G., Cumming, J., & Fletcher, D. (2004). Motivational profiles and psychological skills use within elite youth sport. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 16, 318–332. doi: 10.1080/10413200490517986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Harwood, C. G., Spray, C. M., & Keegan, R. (2008). Achievement goal theories in sport. In T. S. Horn (Ed.), Advances in sport psychology (3rd ed., pp. 157–185). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.Google Scholar
  25. Hatzigeorgiadis, A., & Biddle, S. J. H. (1999). The effects of goal orientation and perceived competence on cognitive interference during tennis and snooker performance. Journal of Sport Behavior, 22, 479–501.Google Scholar
  26. Hatzigeorgiadis, A., & Biddle, S. J. H. (2000). Assessing cognitive interference in sport: Development of the Thought Occurrence Questionnaire for Sport. Anxiety, Stress, & Coping, 13, 65–86. doi: 10.1080/10615800008248334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hatzigeorgiadis, A., & Biddle, S. J. H. (2002). Cognitive interference during competition among athletes with different goal orientation profiles. Journal of Sports Sciences, 20, 707–715.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hatzigeorgiadis, A., Zourbanos, N., Galanis, E., & Theodorakis, Y. (2011). Self-talk and sports performance: A meta-analysis. Perspectives οn Psychological Science, 6(4), 348–356. doi: 10.1177/1745691611413136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hulleman, C. S., Schrager, S. M., Bodmann, S. M., & Harackiewicz, J. M. (2010). A meta-analytic review of achievement goal measures: Different labels for the same constructs or different constructs with similar labels? Psychological Bulletin, 136, 422–449. doi: 10.1037/a0018947.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kaplan, A., & Maehr, M. L. (2007). The contributions and prospects of goal orientation theory. Educational Psychology Review, 19, 141–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kaplan, A. C., & Midgley, C. (1997). The effect of achievement goals: Does level of perceived academic competence make a difference. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 22, 415–435.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kristiansen, E., & Roberts, G. (2010). Young elite athletes and social support: Coping with competitive and organizational stress in “Olympic” competition. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 20, 686–695. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0838.2009.00950.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Larrain, A., & Haye, A. (2012). The discursive nature of inner speech. Theory & Psychology, 22(1), 3–22. doi: 10.1177/0959354311423864.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (1990). A theory of goal setting and task performance. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  35. Mallett, C. J., & Hanrahan, S. J. (1997). Race modeling: An effective cognitive strategy for the 100 m sprinter? The Sport Psychologist, 11, 72–85.Google Scholar
  36. Marsh, H. W., Papaioannou, A., Martin, A., & Theodorakis, Y. (2006). Motivational constructs in Greek physical education classes: Gender and age effects in a nationally representative longitudinal sample. International Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 4, 121–148. doi: 10.1080/1612197X.2006.9671789.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Martens, M. P. (2005). The use of structural equation modeling in counseling psychology research. The Counseling Psychologist, 33, 269–298. doi: 10.1177/0011000004272260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Meichenbaum, D. (1977). Cognitive-behavior modification: An integrative approach. New York: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Milosis, D., & Papaioannou, A. (2007). Effects of interdisciplinary teaching on multiple goals, intrinsic motivation, self-concept and school achievement. In J. Liukkonen, Y. Wanden Auweele, B. Vereijken, D. Alfermann, & Y. Theodorakis (Eds.), Psychology for physical educators (Vol. 2, pp. 175–198). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.Google Scholar
  40. Mischel, W., & Shoda, Y. (1998). Reconciling processing dynamics and personality dispositions. Annual Review of Psychology, 49, 229–258.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Nicholls, J. G. (1984). Achievement motivation: Conceptions of ability, subjective experience, task choice, and performance. Psychological Review, 91, 328–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Nicholls, J. G. (1989). The competitive ethos and democratic education. Cambridge, MA, US: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Nicholls, J. G., Patashnick, M., & Nolen, S. B. (1985). Adolescents’ theories of education. Journal of Educational Psychology, 77(6), 683–692.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Papaioannou, A. (1995). Differential perceptual and motivational patterns when different goals are adopted. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 17, 18–34.Google Scholar
  45. Papaioannou, A., Bebetsos, E., Theodorakis, Y., Christodoulidis, T., & Kouli, O. (2006). Causal relationships of sport and exercise involvement with goal orientations, perceived competence and intrinsic motivation in physical education: A longitudinal study. Journal of Sport Sciences, 24, 367–382. doi: 10.1080/02640410400022060.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Papaioannou, A., Laparidis, K., Mihalopoulou, M., Pilianidis, T., Zetou, E., Goulimaris, D., et al. (2007). Physical education 2 grade of junior high school: Teachers’ book (Translation from Greek). Athens: Greek Ministry of Education.Google Scholar
  47. Papaioannou, A., Laparidis, K., Serbezis, V., Mihalopoulou, M., Pilianidis, T., Karipidis, A., et al. (2008). Physical education 3rd grade of junior high school: Teachers’ book (Translation from Greek). Athens: Greek Ministry of Education.Google Scholar
  48. Papaioannou, A., & MacDonald, A. (1993). Goal perspectives and purposes of physical education among Greek adolescents. Physical Education Review, 16, 41–48.Google Scholar
  49. Papaioannou, A. G., Zourbanos, N., Krommidas, H., & Ampatzoglou, G. (2012). The place of achievement goals in the social context of sport: A critique of the trichotomous and 2 × 2 models. In G. Roberts & D. Treasure (Eds.), Motivation in sport and exercise (3rd ed., pp. 59–90). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.Google Scholar
  50. Roberts, G. C., & Kristiansen, E. (2012). Goal setting to enhance motivation in sport. In G. Roberts & D. Treasure (Eds.), Advances in motivation in sport and exercise (3rd ed., pp. 207–227). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.Google Scholar
  51. Roberts, G. C., Treasure, D. C., & Conroy, D. E. (2007). Understanding the dynamics of motivation in sports and physical activity. In G. Tenenbaum & R. Eklunds (Eds.), Handbook of sport psychology (3rd ed., pp. 3–30). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  52. Satorra, A., & Bentler, P. M. (2001). A scaled difference Chi square test statistic for moment structure analysis. Psychometrika, 66, 507–514. doi: 10.1007/BF02296192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Theodorakis, Y., Hatzigeorgiadis, A., & Zourbanos, N. (2012). Cognitions: self-talk and performance. In S. Murphy (Ed.), Oxford handbook of sport and performance psychology. Part two: Individual psychological processes in performance (pp. 191–212). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  54. Urdan, T., & Mestas, M. (2006). The goals behind performance goals. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98, 354–365. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.98.2.354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Walling, M. D., & Duda, J. L. (1995). Goals and their association with beliefs about success in and perceptions of the purpose of physical education. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 14, 140–156.Google Scholar
  56. White, R. W. (1959). Motivation reconsidered: The concept of competence. Psychological Review, 66, 297–333.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. White, S. A., & Zellner, S. R. (1996). The relationship between goal orientation, beliefs about the causes of sport success, and trait anxiety among high school, intercollegiate, and recreational sport participants. Sport Psychologist, 10, 58–72.Google Scholar
  58. Winsler, A. (2009). Still talking to ourselves after all these years: A Review of current research on private speech. In A. Winsler, C. Fernyhough, & I. Montero (Eds.), Private speech, executive functioning, and the development of verbal self-regulation (pp. 3–41). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  59. Winsler, A., Feder, M., Way, E., & Manfra, L. (2006). Maternal beliefs concerning young children’s private speech. Infant and Child Development, 15, 403–420. doi: 10.1002/icd.467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Zourbanos, N., Hatzigeorgiadis, A., Chroni, S., Theodorakis, Y., & Papaioannou, A. (2009). Automatic Self-Talk Questionnaire for Sports (ASTQS): Development and preliminary validation of a measure identifying the structure of athletes’ self-talk. The Sport Psychologist, 23, 233–251.Google Scholar
  61. Zourbanos, N., Hatzigeorgiadis, A., Goudas, M., Papaioannou, A., Chroni, S., & Theodorakis, Y. (2011). The social side of self-talk: Relationships between perceptions of support received from the coach and athletes’ self-talk. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 12, 407–414. doi: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2011.03.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Zourbanos, N., Hatzigeorgiadis, A., & Theodorakis, Y. (2007). A preliminary investigation of the relationship between athletes’ self-talk, and coaches’ behaviour and statements. International Journal of Sports Science and Coaching, 2(1), 57–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Zourbanos, N., Hatzigeorgiadis, A., Tsiakaras, N., Chroni, S., & Theodorakis, Y. (2010). A multi-method examination of the relationship between coaching behavior and athletes’ inherent self-talk. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 32, 764–785.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Zourbanos, N., Theodorakis, Y., & Hatzigeorgiadis, A. (2006). Coaches’ behavior, social support and athletes’ self-talk. Hellenic Journal of Psychology. Special Issue: Self-Talk in Sport Psychology, 3, 150–163.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nikos Zourbanos
    • 1
    Email author
  • Athanasios Papaioannou
    • 1
  • Evaggelia Argyropoulou
    • 1
  • Antonis Hatzigeorgiadis
    • 1
  1. 1.University of ThessalyTrikalaGreece

Personalised recommendations