Advertisement

Motivation and Emotion

, Volume 36, Issue 4, pp 516–528 | Cite as

Predicting support for social action: How values, justice-related variables, discrete emotions, and outcome expectations influence support for the Stolen Generations

  • N. T. Feather
  • Lydia Woodyatt
  • Ian R. McKee
Original Paper

Abstract

The Stolen Generations are Indigenous Australians who were taken from their homes by the State and placed in children’s homes or foster care. This study investigated relations between the values held by Non-Indigenous Australians and willingness to support a hypothetical organization set up to repair the damage caused. Participants (N = 235) completed the Schwartz Portrait Values Questionnaire followed by items concerning their perceived responsibility; Indigenous deservingness; feelings of pleasure, anger, guilt, regret, shame, and sympathy; their support for the organization; and how efficacious they expected their support would be. It was found at the bivariate level that support was positively associated with self-transcendence values (universalism, benevolence) and negatively associated with both self-enhancement (power, achievement, hedonism) and security values. A path analysis implied that universalism values influenced support via the justice-related variables of perceived responsibility and undeserved treatment, outcome expectations, negative emotions, and sympathy. This study contributes new information about the effects of values on personal willingness to repair past wrongs.

Keywords

Values Justice Emotions Outcome expectations Social action 

References

  1. Allpress, J. A., Barlow, F. K., Brown, R., & Louis, W. R. (2010). Atoning for colonial injustices: Group-based shame and guilt motivate support for reparation. International Journal of Conflict and Violence, 4, 75–88.Google Scholar
  2. Altemeyer, B. (1981). Right-wing authoritarianism. Winnipeg: University of Manitoba Press.Google Scholar
  3. Altemeyer, B., & Hunsberger, B. (1992). Authoritarianism, religious fundamentalism, quest, and prejudice. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 2, 113–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Augoustinos, M., Ahrens, C., & Innes, J. M. (1994). Stereotypes and prejudice: The Australian experience. British Journal of Social Psychology, 33, 125–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 85, 191–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Batson, C. D. (1991). The altruism question: Towards a social psychological answer. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  7. Batson, C. D., Chang, J., Orr, R., & Rowland, J. (2002). Empathy, attitudes, and action: Can feeling for a member of stigmatized group motivate one to help the group? Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 1656–1666.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Berndsen, M., & McGarty, C. (2010). The impact of magnitude of harm and perceived difficulty of making reparations on group-based guilt and reparation towards victims of historical harm. European Journal of Social Psychology, 40, 500–513.Google Scholar
  9. Feather, N. T. (1975). Values in education and society. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  10. Feather, N. T. (1982). Expectations and actions: Expectancy-value models in psychology. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  11. Feather, N. T. (1990). Bridging the gap between values and actions. In E. T. Higgins & R. M. Sorrentino (Eds.), Handbook of motivation and cognition: Foundations of social behavior (Vol. 2, pp. 151–192). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  12. Feather, N. T. (1992). Values, valences, expectations, and actions. Journal of Social Issues, 48, 109–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Feather, N. T. (1994). Attitudes toward high achievers and reactions to their fall. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 26, pp. 1–73). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  14. Feather, N. T. (1995). Values, valences, and choice: The influence of values on the perceived attractiveness and choice of alternatives. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68, 1135–1151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Feather, N. T. (1996a). Reactions to penalties for an offense in relation to authoritarianism, values, perceived responsibility, perceived seriousness, and deservingness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 571–587.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Feather, N. T. (1996b). Values, deservingness, and attitudes toward high achievers: Research on tall poppies. In C. Seligman, J. M. Olson, & M. P. Zanna (Eds.), The psychology of values: The Ontario symposium (Vol. 8, pp. 215–251). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  17. Feather, N. T. (1998). Reactions to penalties committed by the police and public citizens: Testing a social-cognitive process model of retributive justice. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 528–544.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Feather, N. T. (1999a). Judgments of deservingness: Studies in the psychology of justice and achievement. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 3, 86–107.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Feather, N. T. (1999b). Values, achievement, and justice: Studies in the psychology of deservingness. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum.Google Scholar
  20. Feather, N. T. (2005). Values, religion, and motivation. In M. L. Maehr & S. A. Karabenick (Eds.), Advances in motivation and achievement (Vol. 14, pp. 35–73). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  21. Feather, N. T. (2006). Deservingness and emotions: Applying the structural model of deservingness to the analysis of affective reactions to outcomes. European Review of Social Psychology, 17, 38–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Feather, N. T. (2008). Perceived legitimacy of a promotion decision in relation to deservingness, entitlement, and resentment in the context of affirmative action and performance. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 38, 1230–1254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Feather, N. T., & McKee, I. R. (2008). Values and prejudice: Predictors of attitudes towards Australian Aborigines. Australian Journal of Psychology, 60, 80–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Feather, N. T., & McKee, I. R. (2009). Differentiating emotions in relation to deserved or undeserved outcomes: A retrospective study of real-life events. Cognition and Emotion, 23, 955–977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Feather, N. T., McKee, I. R., & Bekker, N. (2011). Deservingness and emotions: Testing a structural model that relates discrete emotions to the perceived deservingness of positive or negative outcomes. Motivation and Emotion, 35, 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Feather, N. T., & Newton, J. W. (1982). Values, expectations, and the prediction of social action: An expectancy-valence analysis. Motivation and Emotion, 6, 217–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief, attitude, intention, and behaviour: An introduction to theory and research. Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  28. Halloran, M. J. (2007). Indigenous reconciliation in Australia: Do values, identity and collective guilt matter? Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 17, 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Heckhausen, H. (1977). Achievement motivation and its constructs: A cognitive model. Motivation and Emotion, 1, 283–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Heider, F. (1958). The psychology of interpersonal relations. New York: Wiley.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Iyer, A., Leach, C. W., & Pedersen, A. (2004). Racial wrongs and restitutions: The role of guilt and other group-based emotions. In N. Branscombe & B. Doosje (Eds.), Collective guilt: International perspectives (pp. 262–283). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Iyer, A., Schmader, T., & Lickel, B. (2007). Why individuals protest the perceived transgressions of their country: The role of anger, shame and guilt. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 33, 573–587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Jöreskog, K. G., & Sörbom, D. (1999). LISREL 8.3. Chicago: Scientific Software International.Google Scholar
  34. McGarty, C., Pedersen, A., Leach, C. W., Mansell, T., Waller, J., & Bliuc, A. M. (2005). Group-based guilt as a predictor of commitment to apology. British Journal of Social Psychology, 44, 659–680.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Nelissen, R. M. A., Dijker, A. J. M., & de Vries, N. K. (2007). Emotions and goals: Assessing relations between values and emotions. Cognition and Emotion, 21, 902–911.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Rawls, J. (1971). A theory of justice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Rokeach, M. (1973). The nature of human values. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  38. Schwartz, S. H. (1992). Universals in the content and structure of values: Theoretical advances and empirical tests in 20 countries. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 25, pp. 1–65). Orlando, FL: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  39. Schwartz, S. H. (1996). Value priorities and behavior: Applying a theory of integrated value systems. In C. Seligman, J. M. Olson, & M. P. Zanna (Eds.), The psychology of values: The Ontario symposium (Vol. 8, pp. 1–24). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  40. Schwartz, S. H. (2005). Robustness and fruitfulness of a theory of universals in individual human values. In A. Tamayo & J. B. Porto (Eds.), Valores e comportamento nas organizações [Values and behaviour in organizations] (pp. 56–95). Petropolis, Brazil: Voges.Google Scholar
  41. Schwartz, S. H. (2006). Les valeurs de base de la personne: Théorie, mesures et applications [Basic human values: Theory, measurements, and applications]. Revue Francaise de Sociologie, 47, 249–288.Google Scholar
  42. Schwartz, S. H., Melech, G., Lehmann, A., Burgess, S., Harris, M., & Owens, V. (2001). Extending the cross-cultural validity of the theory of basic human values with a different method of measurement. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 32, 519–542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Sheikh, S., & Janoff-Bulman, R. (2010). The “shoulds” and “should nots” of moral emotions: A self-regulatory perspective on shame and guilt. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 36, 213–224.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Shermer, J. A., Feather, N. T., Zhu, G., & Martin, N. G. (2008). Phenotypic, genetic, and environmental properties of the portrait values questionnaire. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 11, 531–537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Silfver, M., Helkama, K., Lönnquist, J. E., & Verkasalo, M. (2008). The relation between value priorities and proneness to guilt, shame, and empathy. Motivation and Emotion, 32, 69–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Starzyk, K. B., & Ross, M. (2008). A tarnished silver lining: Victim suffering and support for reparation. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34, 366–380.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Tangney, J. P., & Dearing, R. L. (2002). Shame and guilt. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  48. Thomas, E. F., McGarty, C., & Mavor, K. I. (2009a). Aligning identities, emotions, and beliefs to create commitment to sustainable social and political action. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 13, 194–218.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Thomas, E. F., McGarty, C., & Mavor, K. I. (2009b). Transforming “apathy into movement”: The role of prosocial emotions in motivating action for social change. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 13, 310–333.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Thomas, E. F., McGarty, C., & Mavor, K. I. (2010). Social psychology in making poverty history: Motivating anti-poverty action in Australia. Australian Psychologist, 45, 4–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. van Zomeren, M., Postmes, T., & Spears, R. (2008). Toward an integrative social identity model of collective action: A quantitative research synthesis of three social-psychological perspectives. Psychological Bulletin, 134, 504–535.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Weiner, B. (1995). Judgments of responsibility: A foundation for a theory of social conduct. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  53. Weiner, B. (2006). Social motivation, justice, and the moral emotions. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of PsychologyFlinders UniversityAdelaideAustralia

Personalised recommendations