The effect of infant-like characteristics on empathic concern for adults in need
- 311 Downloads
Three experiments tested the hypothesis that empathic concern for adults in need is enhanced by the degree of target infant-like characteristics. Participants reported feeling more empathic concern for an adult target with a more infant-like face than for an adult with a more adult-like face in a Spanish sample (Experiment 1) and in an American sample (Experiment 2). A similar effect was found when participants were presented with either an adult with a more infant-like voice or an adult with a more adult-like voice in a second American sample (Experiment 3). Additional analyses suggest that the infant-like characteristic effect on empathic concern is not mediated by observer perceptions of target attractiveness, target age or youthfulness, target vulnerability, or observer similarity to the target. These results support the proposition that infant-like cues enhance empathic concern in human observers and that the phenomenon generalizes across stimulus modality, gender, and nationality.
KeywordsEmpathy Empathic concern Infant-like characteristics Babyfacedness Similarity Vulnerability Attractiveness Age
The authors extend their gratitude to Martin Gründl for granting permission to use the facial stimuli presented to participants in Experiments 1 and 2. Also, the authors thank Belén López, Tamara Ambrona, Irene Fernández, Mark Scurlock, Eric Peyton, and Chris Buchannon for their assistance in collecting data as well as Paul Silvia and an anonymous reviewer for providing helpful comments on an earlier draft. Data collection for Experiment 1 and a portion of the preparation of this manuscript were supported by Ministry of Education and Science grant SEJ2005-06307/PSIC, which was awarded to Luis Oceja.
- Batson, C. D. (1991). The altruism question: Towards a social-psychological answer. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Batson, C. D. (1998). Altruism and prosocial behavior. In D. T. Gilbert & S. T. Fiske (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology (4th ed., Vol. 2, pp. 282–316). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
- Davis, M. H. (1996). Empathy: A social psychological approach. Boulder: Westview Press.Google Scholar
- Eibl-Eibesfeldt, I. (1971). Love and hate. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.Google Scholar
- Gründl, M. (2006). http://www.beautycheck.de.
- Lorenz, K. (1971). Studies in animal and human behavior (Vol. 2). Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
- MacLean, P. D. (1990). The triune brain in evolution. New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
- Maner, J. K., Luce, C. L., Neuberg, S. L., Cialdini, R. B., Brown, S., & Sagarin, B. J. (2002). The effects of perspective taking on motivations for helping: Still no evidence for altruism. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 1601–1610. doi: 10.1177/014616702237586.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- McArthur, L. Z., & Apatow, K. (1983/1984). Impressions of baby-faced adults. Social Cognition, 2, 315–342.Google Scholar
- McDougall, W. (1908). Introduction to social psychology. London: Methuen.Google Scholar
- Panksepp, J. (1998). Affective neuroscience. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar