Advertisement

Climate change adaptation in coastal cities of developing countries: characterizing types of vulnerability and adaptation options

  • Tu Dam Ngoc LeEmail author
Article

Abstract

Facing the increasingly adverse impacts of climate change, many coastal cities in developing and least-developed countries have shaped their climate adaptation plan. This study aims to unpack the state-of-the-art municipal adaptation planning in developing countries. The paper seeks to understand the types of vulnerability and explore planned adaptation options through a content analysis of adaptation planning documents in 45 selected coastal cities in developing countries. The result shows the complexity of vulnerabilities that are not only climate change impacts, but more importantly, the socio-economic sensitivity, the insufficient infrastructure system, and limited adaptive capacity. Adaptation responses, correspondingly, address primarily current vulnerabilities rather than future climate change impacts. Local climate change adaptation in developing countries, therefore, cannot separate from socio-economic development and capacity enhancement. A coordination mechanism for inter-policy is necessary to manage the trade-offs between multiple priorities.

Keywords

Climate change Coastal cities Developing countries Vulnerabilities Adaptation options 

Notes

Supplementary material

11027_2019_9888_MOESM1_ESM.docx (118 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 117 kb)

References

  1. Adger WN (1999) Social vulnerability to climate change and extremes in coastal Vietnam. World Dev 27(2):249–269.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0305-750X(98)00136-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adger WN (2006) Vulnerability. Glob Environ Chang 16(3):268–281.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2006.02.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Adger WN, Huq S, Brown K, Conway D, Hulme M (2003) Adaptation to climate change in the developing world. Prog Dev Stud 3(3):179–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Adger WN, Arnell NW, Tompkins EL (2005) Successful adaptation to climate change across scales. Glob Environ Chang 15(2):77–86.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2004.12.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alam E, Collins AE (2010) Cyclone disaster vulnerability and response experiences in coastal Bangladesh. Disasters, 34(4):931–954.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7717.2010.01176.x
  6. Araos M, Berrang-Ford L, Ford JD, Austin SE, Biesbroek R, Lesnikowski A (2016) Climate change adaptation planning in large cities: a systematic global assessment. Environ Sci Pol 66:375–382.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2016.06.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Baker I, Peterson A, Brown G, McAlpine C (2012) Local government response to the impacts of climate change: an evaluation of local climate adaptation plans. Landsc Urban Plan 107(2):127–136.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2012.05.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Balica SF, Wright NG, van der Meulen F (2012) A flood vulnerability index for coastal cities and its use in assessing climate change impacts. Nat Hazards 64(1):73–105.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-012-0234-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bathi JR, Das HS (2016) Vulnerability of Coastal Communities from Storm Surge and Flood Disasters. Int J Environ Res Public Health 13(2):239–239.  https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13020239
  10. Baynham M, Stevens M (2014) Are we planning effectively for climate change? An evaluation of official community plans in British Columbia. J Environ Plan Manag 57(4):557–587.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09640568.2012.756805 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Berman R, Quinn C, Paavola J (2012) The role of institutions in the transformation of coping capacity to sustainable adaptive capacity. Environ Dev 2:86–100.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envdev.2012.03.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bierbaum R, Smith JB, Lee A, Blair M, Carter L, Chapin FS, Fleming P, Ruffo S, Stults M, McNeeley S, Wasley E, Verduzco L (2013) A comprehensive review of climate adaptation in the United States: more than before, but less than needed. Mitig Adapt Strateg Glob Chang 18(3):361–406.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11027-012-9423-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Boateng I (2012) GIS assessment of coastal vulnerability to climate change and coastal adaptiong planning in Vietnam. J Coast Conserv 16:25–36.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11852-011-0165-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Broto VC, Boyd E, Ensor J (2015) Participatory urban planning for climate change adaptation in coastal cities: lessons from a pilot experience in Maputo, Mozambique. Curr Opin Environ Sustain 13:11–18.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cosust.2014.12.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Burton I, Kates RW, White GF (1993) The environment as hazard. The Guilford Press, New York, LondonGoogle Scholar
  16. Button C, Mias-Mamonong MAA, Barth B, Rigg J (2013) Vulnerability and resilience to climate change in Sorsogon City, the Philippines: learning from an ordinary city? Local Environ 18(6):705–722.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13549839.2013.798632 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cutter SL, Emrich CT, Webb JJ, Morath D (2009) Social vulnerability to climate variability hazards: a review of the literature. Final Report to Oxfam America, 5Google Scholar
  18. Dasgupta S, Laplante B, Meisner C, Wheeler D, Yan J (2009) The impact of sea level rise on developing countries: a comparative analysis. Clim Chang 93(3):379–388.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-008-9499-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. DiGregorio M (2015) Bargaining with disaster: flooding, climate change, and urban growth ambitions in Quy Nhon, Vietnam. Pac Aff 88(3):577–597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dodman D (2012) Developing local climate change plans: a guide for cities in developing countries. United Nations Human Settlements Programme, Nairobi, KenyaGoogle Scholar
  21. Dupuis J, Biesbroek R (2013) Comparing apples and oranges: the dependent variable problem in comparing and evaluating climate change adaptation policies. Glob Environ Chang 23(6):1476–1487.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2013.07.022 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Engle NL (2011) Adaptive capacity and its assessment. Glob Environ Chang 21(2):647–656.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2011.01.019 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. European Commission (2013) Adapting infrastructure to climate change. In Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions - An EU Strategy on adaptation to climate change. European Commission, Brussels, pp 37Google Scholar
  24. Fee L, Visal P, Sally N, Sok V (2012) Sihanoukville, Cambodia: climate change vulnerability assessment. In Cities and Climate Change Initiative. UN-HabitatGoogle Scholar
  25. FEMA (2011) Coastal construction manual: principles and practices of planning, siting, designing, constructing, and maintaining residential buildings in coastal areas, Fourth edn. U.S. Department of Homeland Security, USAGoogle Scholar
  26. Fields, G. S. (2011). Poverty and low earnings in the developing world [Electronic version] [Electronic version]. Retrieved from https://digitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu/workingpapers/152/
  27. Finkl CW (ed) (2012) Coastal hazards, vol 6. Springer, Dordrecht, Heidelberg, New York, LondonGoogle Scholar
  28. Florano ER (2015) Mainstreaming integrated climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction in local development plans in the Philippines. In: Filho WL (ed) Handbook of climate change adaptation. Springer-Verlag, Berlin HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  29. Funfgeld H, McEvoy D (2011) Framing climate change adaptation in policy and practice. Victorian Centre for Climate Change Adaptation Research, MelbourneGoogle Scholar
  30. Füssel H-M, Klein RJT (2006) Climate change vulnerability assessments: an evolution of conceptual thinking. Clim Chang 75(3):301–329.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-006-0329-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gallopín GC (2006) Linkages between vulnerability, resilience, and adaptive capacity. Glob Environ Chang 16(3):293–303.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2006.02.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gibbs MT (2013) Asset anchoring as a constraint to sea level rise adaptation. Ocean Coast Manag 85:119–123.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2013.09.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gibbs MT (2016) Why is coastal retreat so hard to implement? Understanding the political risk of coastal adaptation pathways. Ocean Coast Manag 130:107–114.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2016.06.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Grothmann T, Patt A (2005) Adaptive capacity and human cognition: the process of individual adaptation to climate change. Glob Environ Chang 15(3):199–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hale LZ, Meliane I, Davidson S, Sandwith T, Beck M, Hoekstra J et al (2009) Ecosystem-based adaptation in marine and coastal ecosystems. Renew Resour J 25(4):21–28Google Scholar
  36. Hijioka Y, Lin E, Pereira JJ, Corlett RT, Cui X, Insarov GE et al (2014) Asia. In: Barros VR, Field CB, Dokken DJ, Mastrandrea MD, Mach KJ, Bilir TE, Chatterjee M, Ebi KL, Estrada YO, Genova RC, Girma B, Kissel ES, Levy AN, MacCracken S, Mastrandrea MD, White LL (eds) Climate change 2014: impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Part B: regional aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge and New York, pp 1327–1370Google Scholar
  37. Hill K (2015) Coastal infrastructure: a typology for the next century of adaptation to sea-level rise. Front Ecol Environ 13(9):468–476.  https://doi.org/10.1890/150088 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Huq S, Rahman A, Konate M, Sokona Y, Reid H (2003) Mainstreaming adaptation to climate change in least developed countries (LDCS). Nottingham, UKGoogle Scholar
  39. IPCC (2007) Climate change 2007: synthesis report. Contribution of Working Group I, II, III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. IPCC, Geneva, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  40. IPCC (2012) Summary for policymakers. In: Field CB, Barros V, Stocker TF, Qin D, Dokken DJ, Ebi KL, Mastrandrea MD, Mach KJ, Plattner G-K, Allen SK, Tignor M, Midgley PM (eds) Managing the risks of extreme events and disasters to advance climate change adaptation. Special Report of Working Groups I and II of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, New York, pp 3–21Google Scholar
  41. IPCC (2014) Climate change 2014: synthesis report. Contribution of Working Group I, II, III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. IPCC, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  42. Karanth A, Archer D (2014) Institutionalising mechanisms for building urban climate resilience: experiences from India. Dev Pract 24(4):514–526.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09614524.2014.911246 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kelly PM, Adger WN (2000) Theory and practice in assessing vulnerability to climate change and facilitating adaptation. Clim Chang 47(4):325–352.  https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1005627828199 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Klein RJT, Nicholls RJ, Sachooda R, Michele C, James A, Buckley EN (2001) Technological options for adaptation to climate change in coastal zones. J Coast Res 17(3):531–543 Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org.gate.lib.buffalo.edu/stable/4300206 Google Scholar
  45. Kreft S, Eckstein D, Melchior I (2016) Global climate risk index 2017: who suffers most from extreme weather events? Weather-related loss events in 2015 and 1996 to 2015. Germanwatch Nord-Süd Initiative eVGoogle Scholar
  46. Lebel L, Anderies JM, Campbell B, Folke C, Hatfield-Dodds S, Hughes TP, Wilson J (2006) Governance and the capacity to manage resilience in regional social-ecological systems. Ecol Soc 11(1):19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Lesnikowski AC, Ford JD, Berrang-Ford L, Barrera M, Heymann J (2015) How are we adapting to climate change? A global assessment. Mitig Adapt Strateg Glob Chang 20(2):277–293.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11027-013-9491-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Mackey A, Gass SM (2005) Second language research: methodology and design. Routledge, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  49. Magrin GO, Marengo JA, Boulanger J-P, Buckeridge MS, Castellanos E, Poveda G et al (2014) Central and South America. In: Barros VR, Field CB, Dokken DJ, Mastrandrea MD, Mach KJ, Bilir TE, Chatterjee M, Ebi KL, Estrada YO, Genova RC, Girma B, Kissel ES, Levy AN, MacCracken S, Mastrandrea MD, White LL (eds) Climate change 2014: impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Part B: regional aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge and New York, pp 1499–1566Google Scholar
  50. Mahanama P, Abenayake C, Jayasinghe A (2013) Batticaloa, Sri Lanka: climate change vulnerability assessment. In Cities and Climate Change Initiative: UN-HabitatGoogle Scholar
  51. Masson-Delmotte V, Zhai P, Pörtner HO, Roberts D, Skea J, Shukla PR et al (2018) IPCC, 2018: Summary for policymakers. In: Global warming of 1.5°C. World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, p 32Google Scholar
  52. Mukheibir P, Ziervogel G (2007) Developing a municipal adaptation plan (MAP) for climate change: the city of Cape Town. Environ Urban 19(1):143–158.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0956247807076912 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Mukherjee R (1991) Social and cultural components of society and appraisal of social reality. Econ Polit Wkly PE21-PE36Google Scholar
  54. Niang I, Ruppel OC, Abdrabo MA, Essel A, Lennard C, Padgham J, Urquhart P (2014) Africa. In: Barros VR, Field CB, Dokken DJ, Mastrandrea MD, Mach KJ, Bilir TE, Chatterjee M, Ebi KL, Estrada YO, Genova RC, Girma B, Kissel ES, Levy AN, MacCracken S, Mastrandrea MD, White LL (eds) Climate change 2014: impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Part B: regional aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge and New York, pp 1199–1265Google Scholar
  55. Nicholls RJ (2010) Impacts of and responses to sea-level rise. In Understanding Sea-Level Rise and Variability. Wiley-Blackwell, pp 17-51Google Scholar
  56. Noble IR, Huq S, Anokhin YA, Carmin J, Goudon D, Lansigan FP et al (2014) Adaptation needs and options. In: Field CB, Barros VR, Dokken DJ, Mach KJ, Mastrandrea MD, Bilir TE, Chatterjee M, Ebi KL, Estrada YO, Genova RC, Girma B, Kissel ES, Levy AN, MacCracken S, Mastrandrea PR, White LL (eds) Climate change 2014: impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Part A: global and sectoral aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge and New York, pp 833–868Google Scholar
  57. Pelling M, High C (2005) Understanding adaptation: what can social capital offer assessments of adaptive capacity? Glob Environ Chang 15(4):308–319.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2005.02.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Revi A, Satterthwaite DE, Aragón-Durand F, Corfee-Morlot J, Kiunsi RBR, Pelling M et al (2014) Urban Areas. In: Field CB, Barros V, Dokken DJ, Mach KJ, Mastrandrea MD, Bilir TE, Chatterjee M, Ebi KL, Estrada YO, Genova RC, Girma B, Kissel ES, Levy AN, MacCracken S, Mastrandrea MD, White LL (eds) Climate change 2014: impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Part A: global and sectoral aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge and New York, pp 535–612Google Scholar
  59. Roberts D (2008) Thinking globally, acting locally — institutionalizing climate change at the local government level in Durban, South Africa. Environ Urban 20(2):521–537.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0956247808096126 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Sales RFM Jr (2009) Vulnerability and adaptation of coastal communities to climate variability and sea-level rise: their implications for integrated coastal management in Cavite City, Philippines. Ocean Coast Manag 52(7):395–404.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2009.04.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Saroar MM, Routray JK (2013) ‘Climate refugee’ is not a hoax. But we can avoid it. Empirical evidence from the Bangladesh coast. In: Schmidt-Thomé P, Klein J (eds) Climate change adaptation in practice: from strategy development to implementation. John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., HobokenGoogle Scholar
  62. Schlosberg D (2012) Climate justice and capabilities: a framework for adaptation policy. Ethics Int Aff 26(4):445–461.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0892679412000615 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Semenza JC, Hall DE, Wilson DJ, Bontempo BD, Sailor DJ, George LA (2008) Public perception of climate change: voluntary mitigation and barriers to behavior change. Am J Prev Med 35(5):479–487.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2008.08.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Sharma D, Singh R, Singh R (2013) Urban climate resilience: a review of the methodologies adopted under the ACCCRN initiative in Indian cities. International Institute for Environmental and Development, LondonGoogle Scholar
  65. Shepard CC, Agostini VN, Gilmer B, Allen T, Stone J, Brooks W, Beck MW (2012) Assessing future risk: quantifying the effects of sea level rise on storm surge risk for the southern shores of Long Island, New York. Nat Hazards 60(2):727–745.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-011-0046-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Smit B, Pilifosova O (2001) Chapter 18. Adaptation to climate change in the context of sustainable development and equity. In: Climate change 2001: Impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability - contributing of working group II to the third assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Imperial College Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  67. Smit B, Wandel J (2006) Adaptation, adaptive capacity and vulnerability. Glob Environ Chang 16(3):282–292.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2006.03.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Smith JB, Klein RJT, Huq S (eds) (2003) Climate change, adaptive capacity and development. Imperial College Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  69. Surjan A, Parvin GA, Atta RU, Shaw R (2016) Chapter 6 - expanding coastal cities: an increasing risk. In: Urban Disasters and Resilience in Asia. Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, pp 79–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Tang Z, Brody SD, Quinn C, Chang L, Wei T (2010) Moving from agenda to action: evaluating local climate change action plans. J Environ Plan Manag 53(1):41–62.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09640560903399772 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Tanner T, Mitchell T, Polack E, Guenther B (2009) Urban governance for adaptation: assessing climate change resilience in ten Asian cities. Insitute of Development Studies, BrightonGoogle Scholar
  72. Tobey J, Rubinoff P, Robadue D, Ricci G, Volk R, Furlow J, Anderson G (2010) Practicing coastal adaptation to climate change: lessons from integrated coastal management. Coast Manag 38(3):317–335.  https://doi.org/10.1080/08920753.2010.483169 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Tobin GA (1995) The levee love affair: a stormy relationship? JAWRA J Am Water Resour Assoc 31(3):359–367.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-1688.1995.tb04025.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Tyler S, Moench M (2012) A framework for urban climate resilience. Clim Dev 4(4):311–326.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17565529.2012.745389 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. U.S. EPA (2009) Synthesis of adaptation options for coastal areas. Environmental Protection Agency, Climate Ready Estuaries Program, Washington, DC, U.S.Google Scholar
  76. WHO and UNICEF. (2017). Progress on drinking water, sanitation and hygiene: 2017 update and SDG baselines. Geneva: World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGOGoogle Scholar
  77. Wijaya N (2015) Climate change adaption measures in the Coastal City of Semarang, Indonesia: current practices and performance. J Regional City Plan 26(1):28–42Google Scholar
  78. Wong PP, Losada IJ, Gattuso JP, Hinkel J, Khattabi A, Mclnnes KL et al (2014) Coastal systems and low-lying areas. In: Field CB, Barros V, Dokken DJ, Mach KJ, Mastrandrea MD, Bilir TE, Chatterjee M, Ebi KL, Estrada YO, Genova RC, Girma B, Kissel ES, Levy AN, MacCracken S, Mastrandrea MD, White LL (eds) Climate change 2014: impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Part A: global and sectoral aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge and New York, pp 361–409Google Scholar
  79. Woodruff SC, Stults M (2016) Numerous strategies but limited implementation guidance in US local adaptation plans. Nat Clim Chang 6(8):796–802.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate3012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Yan B, Wang J, Li S, Cui L, Ge Z, Zhang L (2016) Assessment of socio-economic vulnerability under sea level rise coupled with storm surge in the Chongming County, Shanghai. Acta Ecol Sin 36(2):91–98.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chnaes.2016.01.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Yohe G, Tol RSJ (2002) Indicators for social and economic coping capacity—moving toward a working definition of adaptive capacity. Glob Environ Chang 12(1):25–40.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0959-3780(01)00026-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Zhu X, Linham MM, Nicholls RJ (2010) Technologies for climate change adaptation-coastal erosion and flooding. In. Roskilde: Danmarks Tekniske Universitet, Risø Nationallaboratoriet for Bæredygtig Energi. (TNA Guidebook Series)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Urban and Regional PlanningUniversity at BuffaloBuffaloUSA
  2. 2.Faculty of ArchitectureMien Trung University of Civil EngineeringTuy HoaVietnam

Personalised recommendations