GHG emission projection and mitigation potential for ceramic tableware industry in Thailand

  • Kannaphat Chuenwong
  • Boonrod Sajjakulnukit
  • Siriluk ChiarakornEmail author
Original Article


The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of the global ceramic production is estimated at more than 400 Mt CO2/year, which have increased steadily from economic growth. Among ceramic industries, ceramic tableware industry (CTI) is a highly energy-intensive and high GHG emissions industry. Thailand was the fourth highest ranking ceramic tableware exporting country in the world. However, information on GHG emission from this industry was limited. This research aimed to investigate the carbon dioxide(CO2) intensity of CTI in Thailand and the annual projections of GHG emission during 2017–2050 with different GDP growths. Then, the energy saving potentials and GHG mitigation measures with their GHG abatement cost for small and large-scale CTI were proposed. The results indicated that the average CO2 intensity of Thailand CTI was 1.75 kg CO2e/kg of product. The projections for GHG emissions of ceramic tableware production with gross domestic production (GDP) growth rates of 1.5, 3.5 (BAU), and 5.5%, reached their maximum emissions at 220,500 t CO2 in 2029, 2022, and 2020, respectively. Under a BAU scenario, ceramic tableware production in 2022 would emit GHG at a rate approximately 1.37 times greater compared to the emissions in 2016. The maximum GHG reduction (100% implementation) was 48,902 t CO2e, accounting for 22% of GHG emissions in 2030. The average mitigation cost was 6.64 USD/t CO2e reduction. This study provided a guideline for the assessment of CO2 intensity and the technical information for long-term GHG emission projection in CTI which could be applied in worldwide.


Ceramic tableware industry Greenhouse gas emission GHG mitigation GHG abatement cost Energy efficiency Thailand 



The authors also would like to thank the Lampang Ceramic Association (LCA) for their kind collaboration.

Funding information

The authors would like to thank the Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment (JGSEE), King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi (KMUTT), the Center of Excellence on Energy Technology and Environment, Ministry of Energy (CEE PERDO) (JGSEE/THESIS/241), the Energy Conservation Promotion Fund, Energy Policy and Planning Office (EPPO) (55201), the Higher Education Research Promotion and the National Research University Project of Thailand (NRU), Office of the Higher Education Commission (58000530) for their financial support of this work


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kannaphat Chuenwong
    • 1
    • 2
  • Boonrod Sajjakulnukit
    • 2
    • 3
  • Siriluk Chiarakorn
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Division of Environmental Technology, The Joint Graduate School of Energy and EnvironmentKing Mongkut’s University of Technology ThonburiBangkokThailand
  2. 2.Center of Excellence on Energy Technology and EnvironmentBangkokThailand
  3. 3.Division of Energy Technology, The Joint Graduate School of Energy and EnvironmentKing Mongkut’s University of Technology ThonburiBangkokThailand
  4. 4.Division of Environmental Technology, School of Energy, Environment and MaterialsKing Mongkut’s University of Technology ThonburiBangkokThailand

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