The cost of mitigation strategies for agricultural adaptation to global change
Land recovery and the improvement of lands affected by desertification for agricultural use, is achieved when a sustained recovery of agricultural productivity over time is obtained. In the areas affected by desertification and drought, it is common that the ecosystems do not have enough funding for water management and irrigation. This situation leads to an inadequate assessment of the environmental goods and services in arid zones. As a result we have a misuse of these dry lands. Many countries are implementing policies and making investments and efforts to mitigate arid land degradation and desertification through the National Action Programs (NAP). However, for the long term planning of mitigation and adaptation strategies, it is necessary to know the cost of recovery and land improvement in certain areas in order to forecast the budgets. This is the main objective of this paper in order to combat desertification and drought in central northern Chile. We have calculated a recovery cost per hectare by region and for each of the agriculture, livestock and forestry (ALF) promotion agencies. The results indicate that the cost of land reclamation in the northern regions is much higher than in the southern regions of this studied area. The cost is especially high for Region II, where investment per hectare is almost to 3000 US$ per hectare. At the other extreme is the Region VII, in the south of the studied area where the investment required per hectare barely reaches 500 US$. The contribution of the promotion agencies to the total cost also varied among regions and agencies. We discuss the results within a context of recovery cost per hectare depending on the different environmental characteristics and agricultural development of each of the studied regions.
KeywordsDrought Desertification Adaptation investments Atacama Desert Climate change Land reclamation Mitigation Sustainable development Land degradation
The authors would like to thank to CONAF, to CNR and to SAG for their inestimable collaboration. Thank also go to Ximena Santo for her valuable help in reviewing the language of the manuscript.
- Biggs R, Bohensky E, Desanker EV et al (2004) Nature supporting people: the Southern Africa Millennium Assessment. CSIR, PraetoriaGoogle Scholar
- Carpenter SR, Bennett EM, Peterson GD (2006) Scenarios for ecosystem services: an overview. Ecol Soc 11(1):29Google Scholar
- CONAF (1999) Mapa preliminar de la desertificación en Chile. Ministerio de Agricultura, Santiago, Chile. Programa FAO, PNUMA Desertificación. ChileGoogle Scholar
- Dixon JA, James DE, Sherman PB (eds) (1990) Dryland Management: Economic Case Studies. Earthscan, LondonGoogle Scholar
- Gitay H, Brown SD, Easterling W et al (2001) Ecosystems and their goods and services. In: McCarthy JJ, Canziani OF, Leary NA, Dokken DJ, White KS (eds) Climate change 2001. Impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 237–315Google Scholar
- INE (2009) Environment: annual report 2007. National Institute of Statistics. Ministry of Economy, ChileGoogle Scholar
- PAN (2000) Plan de Acción Nacional. Informe nacional para la implementación de la convención de las naciones unidas para el combate de la desertificación en Chile. Santiago, ChileGoogle Scholar
- Quezada C, Sandoval M, Zagal E (2008) Manejo de suelos en zonas áridas. Ministerio de Agricultura de ChileGoogle Scholar
- Salinas CX (2011) Evaluación de la normativa de fomento silvoagropecuario para la lucha contra la desertificación y la sequía en Chile. PhD Dissertation. University of Basque Country, Leioa, SpainGoogle Scholar
- Salinas CX, Mendieta J (2012a) Numerical model to assess the impact of the strategies to mitigate desertification. Mitig Adapt Strateg Glob Change. doi: 10.1007/s11027-012-9375-5
- Salinas CX, Mendieta J (2012b) Mitigation and adaptation investments for desertification and climate change: an assessment of the socioeconomic return. Mitig Adapt Strateg Glob Change. doi: 10.1007/s11027-012-9380-8
- UNCCD (1994) United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification, Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee For a Convention to Combat Desertification, Elaboration of an International Convention to Combat Desertification in Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, Particularly in Africa. U.N. Doc. A/AC.241/27, 33 I.L.M. 1328. United Nations, New YorkGoogle Scholar