Advertisement

Local to global perspectives on forest and land fires in Southeast Asia

  • Daniel MurdiyarsoEmail author
  • Louis Lebel
Original Article

Abstract

Forest and land fires are not new to the landscapes of Southeast Asia. Nevertheless, strikingly different perspectives persist about the significance of fires in the tropics to environmental changes and human well-being and consequently how they should be managed. Our synthesis of papers in this special issue suggests both trade-offs and complementarities in various policy responses with differing objectives. There are, however, at least three domains with high potential of meeting multiple objectives. First, is through identification, and improved management, of ecosystems vulnerable to fire under current and future climate. Agriculture, forestry and human settlements on peat land areas in Indonesia are candidates for such a focus. Second, is through building adaptive capacities to manage fire and related land and water resources. Investments in capacity at multiple levels are needed, but particularly at fairly local levels where stakeholders have strong incentives to manage fires appropriate to local contexts. Third, is through building awareness that fire management does not universally equate to fire suppression. Severe smoke haze episodes, for example, are also a result of timing of fires, and some fire-adapted ecosystems may depend on fire to persist. Finally, we emphasize that effective fire management is unlikely to be realized without greater engagement by research and policy with stakeholders in thoroughly exploring the full range of land and fire management options. Negotiation, compensation and trade-offs are probably inevitable.

Keywords

Policy responses Fire and emission mitigation Vulnerability assessment Climate change Adaptation strategies Governance 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adger NW, Arnell NW, Tompkins EL (2005) Successful adaptation to climate change across scales. Global Environ Change 15:77–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Applegate G, Smith R, Fox JJ, Mitchell A, Packham D, Tapper N, Baines G (2001) Forest fires in Indonesia: impacts and solutions. In: Colfer CJP, Resosudarmo IAP (eds) Which way forward?: people, forests and policymaking in Indonesia. Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) and Institute of Southeast Asian Studies (ISEAS). Washington DC, pp 293–308Google Scholar
  3. BAPPENAS (1999) Causes, Extent, Impact and Costs of 1997/98 Fires and Drought. Planning for Fire Prevention and Drought Management Project. Asian Development Bank Technical Assistant Grant TA 2999-INOGoogle Scholar
  4. Barber CV, Schweithelm J (2000) Trial by fire: forest fires and forestry policy in Indonesia’s era of crisis and reform. World Resource InstituteGoogle Scholar
  5. Chokkalingam U, Suyanto S, Permana RP, Kurniawan I, Mannes J, Darmawan A, Khususyiah N, Susanto RH (2005) Community fire use, resource change, and livelihood impacts: the downward spiral in the wetlands of Southern Sumatra. This volumeGoogle Scholar
  6. Cottle P (2005) Insuring Southeast Asian commercial forests: fire risk analysis and the potential for use of data in risk pricing and reduction of forest fire risk. This volumeGoogle Scholar
  7. de Groot WJ, Field RD, Brady MA, Roswintiarti O, Mohamad M (2005) Development of the Indonesian and Malaysian fire danger rating systems. This volumeGoogle Scholar
  8. Dennis R (1999) A review of Fire Projects in Indonesia (1982–1998), Center for International Forestry Research., BogorGoogle Scholar
  9. Fox J, Dao MT, Rambo AT, Nghiem PT, Le TC, Leisz S (2000) Shifting cultivation: a new old paradigm for managing tropical forests. Bioscience 50:521–528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Goldammer J, Siebert B (1989) Natural rain forest fires in Eastern Borneo during the Pleistocene and Holocene. Naturwissenschaften 76:518–520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Goldammer JG (2005) History of equatorial vegetation fires and fire research in Southeast Asia before the 1997–98 Episode: a reconstruction of creeping environmental changes. This volumeGoogle Scholar
  12. Guido R, van der Werf GR, Randerson JT, Collatz GJ, Giglio L (2003) Carbon emissions from fires in tropical and subtropical systems. Global Change Biol 9:547–562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Heil A, Langmann B, Aldrian E (2005) Indonesian peat and vegetation fire emissions: study on factors influencing large-scale smoke haze pollution using a regional atmospheric chemistry model. This volumeGoogle Scholar
  14. Keetch JJ, Byram GM (1988) A drought index for forest control. Forest Services Research Paper SE 38, USDA Forest Service Southeastern Forest Experiment Station, AshvilleGoogle Scholar
  15. Kitjewachakul N, Shivakoti GP, Webb EL (2004) Forest health, collective behaviors and management. Environ Manage 33:620–636Google Scholar
  16. Lavorel S, Flannigan MD, Lambin EF, Schole MC (2005) Vulnerability of land systems to fire: interactions among humans, climate, the atmosphere, and ecosystems. This volumeGoogle Scholar
  17. Luangaramsri P (2002) Redefining nature: karen ecological knowledge and the challenge to the modern conservation paradigm, Earthworm Books, ChennaiGoogle Scholar
  18. Maxwell AL (2004) Fire regimes in north-eastern Cambodian monsoonal forests, with a 9300-year sediment charcoal record. J Biogeogr 31:225–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Murdiyarso D, Lebel L, Gintings AN, Tampubolon SMH, Heil A, Wasson M (2004) Policy responses to complex environmental problems: insights from a science-policy activity on transboundary haze from vegetation fires in Southeast Asia. J Agric, Ecosystems, Environ 104:47–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Murdiyarso D, Lebel L (2005) Southeast Asian fire regimes and land development policy. In: Canadell J, Pataki D, Pitelka L (eds) Terrestrial Ecosystems in a Changing World, Springer. In PressGoogle Scholar
  21. Murdiyarso D, Adiningsih ES (2005) Climate anomalies, Indonesian vegetation fires and terrestrial carbon emissions. This volumeGoogle Scholar
  22. Page SE, Siegert F, Rieley JO, v. Boehm HD, Jaya A (2002) The amount of carbon released from peat and forest fires in Indonesia during 1997. Nature 420:61–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Rajchagool C (2002) Tambon Adminsitration Organizations: are the people in the dramatis personae or in the audience? UNESCAP, BangkokGoogle Scholar
  24. Schmidt-Vogt D (1998) Defining degradation: the impacts of swidden on forests in northern Thailand. Mt Res Dev 18:135–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Silver C (2003) Do the donors have it right? Decentralization and changing local governance in Indonesia. Ann Reg Sci 37:421–434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Simorangkir D (2005) Fire use: is it really the cheaper land preparation method for large-scale plantations? This volumeGoogle Scholar
  27. Stolle F, Chomitz KM, Lambin EF, Tomich TP (2003) Land use and vegetation fires in Jambi Province, Sumatra, Indonesia. Forest Ecol Manag 179:277–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Stolle F, Lambin EF (2003) Interprovincial and interannual differences in the causes of land-use fires in Sumatra, Indonesia. Environ Conservation 30:375–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Stott P (1988) The forest as Phoenix: towards a biogeography of fire in mainland South East Asia. Geogr J 154:337–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Streets DG, Yarber KF, Woo J-H, Carmichael GR (2003) Biomass burning in Asia: annual and seasonal estimates and atmospheric emissions. Global Biogeochem Cycles 17:1099CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Suyanto S (2005) Underlying cause of fire: different form of land tenure conflicts in Sumatra. This volumeGoogle Scholar
  32. Tomich TP, Fagi AM, de Foresta H, Michon G, Murdiyarso D, Stolle F, van Noordwijk M (1998) Indonesia’s fires: smoke as problem, smoke as a symptom. Agroforestry Today 4–7Google Scholar
  33. Qadri S (2001) Fire, Smoke, and Haze: the ASEAN response strategy. ASEAN-ADBGoogle Scholar
  34. Vandergeest P (2003) Racialiation and citizenship in Thai forest politics. Soc Nat Resour 16:19–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Wollenberg E, Kartodihardjo H (2002) Devolution and Indonesia’s new forestry law. In: Colfer CJP, Resosudarmo IAP (eds) Which way forward?: people, forests, and policymaking in Indonesia. Resources for the Future, Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) and Institute of Southeast Asian Studies (ISEAS). Washington, DC, pp 81–109Google Scholar
  36. World Bank (2001) Indonesia: environment and Natural Resource Management in a Time of Transition, Washington, DC, USA, World BankGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for International Forestry Research, Jl. CIFORBogorIndonesia
  2. 2.Unit for Social and Environmental ResearchChiang Mai Universitychiang maiThailand

Personalised recommendations