Advertisement

Community fire use, resource change, and livelihood impacts: The downward spiral in the wetlands of southern Sumatra

  • Unna Chokkalingam
  • Suyanto
  • Rizki Pandu Permana
  • Iwan Kurniawan
  • Josni Mannes
  • Andy Darmawan
  • Noviana Khususyiah
  • Robiyanto Hendro Susanto
Original Article

Abstract

Fire is an important community wetland management tool in Indonesia, but its increasing use in the wetlands of southern Sumatra is degrading the landscape and diminishing household incomes and livelihood options. We studied evolving community land and fire use, resource and livelihood impacts on two sites of roughly 250 km2 each using satellite image analysis and biological and socio-economic surveys. Uncontrolled fire use expanded over time in relation to sonor or swamp rice cultivation, logging, fishing, grazing, and annual cropping on drained wetlands. As a result, most of the landscape has been subject to repeated fires of varying intensities, more extensive in El Niño years. Direct burning by companies played a smaller transitory role in fire ignition over the two decades. But company activities and other large-scale developments contributed to expanding community fire-based land use by bringing in more people, improving access to remote wetlands or making them more flammable. Widespread, repeated fires have transformed the landscape from mature high swamp forests to uniform stands of fire-resistant Gelam (Melaleuca cajuputi) forests and thickets, open savannas and grasslands. These new types of land cover are also degrading. Local communities have rapidly adapted to the changing resources and new opportunities. Logging and fishing declined in importance, and sonor and harvesting of Gelam expanded. But resource depletion has led to falling incomes and fewer livelihood options. The impacts extend beyond local areas as workers migrate into neighbouring forests to extract resources. Large-scale developments, community fire-based management practices and landscape transformation are spreading from accessible to formerly more remote wetlands.

Keywords

Community fire management Livelihoods Melaleuca cajuputi sonor Sumatra Swamps Wetlands 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abe K (1997) Cari rezeki, Numpang, Siap: the reclamation process of peat swamp forest in Riau. Southeast Asian Studies 34:622–632Google Scholar
  2. ADB (Asian Development Bank)/BAPPENAS (National Development Planning Agency) (1999) Causes, extent, impact and costs of 1997/98 fires and drought. Final Report, Annex 1 and 2, Planning for Fire Prevention and Drought Management Project, Asian Development Bank TA 2999-INO Fortech, Pusat Pengembangan Agribisnis, Margules Pöyry, Jakarta, IndonesiaGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson IP, Bowen MR (2000) Fire zones and the threat to the wetlands of Sumatra, Indonesia. MoFEC-EU Forest Fire Prevention and Control Project, Palembang, IndonesiaGoogle Scholar
  4. BPS OKI (Badan Pusat Statistik Kabupaten Ogan Komering Ilir) (1996) Ogan Komering Ilir dalam Angka 1996 (Ogan Komering Ilir in Figures). BPS, Palembang, IndonesiaGoogle Scholar
  5. BPS OKI (Badan Pusat Statistik Kabupaten Ogan Komering Ilir) (1997) Ogan Komering Ilir dalam Angka 1997 (Ogan Komering Ilir in Figures). BPS, Palembang, IndonesiaGoogle Scholar
  6. BPS OKI (Badan Pusat Statistik Kabupaten Ogan Komering Ilir) (1998) Ogan Komering Ilir dalam Angka 1998 (Ogan Komering Ilir in Figures). BPS, Palembang, IndonesiaGoogle Scholar
  7. BPS OKI (Badan Pusat Statistik Kabupaten Ogan Komering Ilir) (1999) Ogan Komering Ilir dalam Angka 1999 (Ogan Komering Ilir in Figures). BPS, Palembang, IndonesiaGoogle Scholar
  8. BPS OKI (Badan Pusat Statistik Kabupaten Ogan Komering Ilir) (2000) Ogan Komering Ilir dalam Angka 2000 (Ogan Komering Ilir in Figures). BPS, Palembang, IndonesiaGoogle Scholar
  9. BPS Tulang Bawang (Badan Pusat Statistik Kabupaten Tulang Bawang) (1997) Tulang Bawang dalam Angka 1996 (Tulang Bawang in Figures). BPS, LampungGoogle Scholar
  10. BPS Tulang Bawang (Badan Pusat Statistik Kabupaten Tulang Bawang) (1998) Tulang Bawang dalam Angka 1997 (Tulang Bawang in Figures). BPS, LampungGoogle Scholar
  11. BPS Tulang Bawang (Badan Pusat Statistik Kabupaten Tulang Bawang) (1999) Tulang Bawang dalam Angka 1998 (Tulang Bawang in Figures). BPS, LampungGoogle Scholar
  12. BPS Tulang Bawang (Badan Pusat Statistik Kabupaten Tulang Bawang) (2000) Tulang Bawang dalam Angka 1999 (Tulang Bawang in Figures). BPS, LampungGoogle Scholar
  13. BPS Tulang Bawang (Badan Pusat Statistik Kabupaten Tulang Bawang) (2001) Tulang Bawang dalam Angka 2000 (Tulang Bawang in Figures). BPS, LampungGoogle Scholar
  14. Barber CV, Schweithelm J (2000) Trial by fire: forest fires and forestry policy in Indonesia's era of crisis and reform. World Resources Institute, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  15. Boland DJ, Brooker MIH, Chippendale GM, Hall N, Hyland BPM, Johnston RD, Kleinig DA, Turner JD (1984) Forest trees of Australia. 4th edition. Nelson and CSIRO, MelbourneGoogle Scholar
  16. Bompard JM, Guizol P (1999) Land management in the province of South Sumatra, Indonesia. Fanning the flames: the institutional causes of vegetation fires. MoFEC-EU Forest Fire Prevention and Control Project, Palembang, IndonesiaGoogle Scholar
  17. Brady MA (1989) A note on the Sumatra peat swamp forest fires of 1987. Journal of Tropical Forest Science 1(3):295–296Google Scholar
  18. Brady, MA (1997) Organic matter dynamics of coastal peat deposits in Sumatra, Indonesia. Ph.D. dissertation, University of British ColumbiaGoogle Scholar
  19. Giesen W (1991) Tulang Bawang swamps, Lampung, PHPA/AWB Sumatra Wetland Project Report No.15. Asian Wetland Bureau, Bogor, IndonesiaGoogle Scholar
  20. Giesen W, Aglionby J (2000) Introduction to Danau Sentaurum National Park, West Kalimantan. Borneo Research Bulletin 31:5–28Google Scholar
  21. GiesenW, Sukotjo (1991) Conservation and management of the Ogan-Komering and Lebaks South Sumatra, PHPA/AWB Sumatra Wetland Project Report No. 8. Asian Wetland Bureau, Bogor, IndonesiaGoogle Scholar
  22. Holmes D (1998) Rainfall and Droughts in Indonesia: a study for the World Bank, volume 3a. The World Bank Resident Mission, Sumatra, JakartaGoogle Scholar
  23. Jakubauskas ME, Lulla KP, Mausel PW (1990) Assessment of vegetation change in a fire altered forest landscape. Photogrametric Engineering and Remote Sensing 56:371–377Google Scholar
  24. Koeshendrajana S, Cacho O (2001) Management options for the Inland fisheries resource in South Sumatra, Indonesia: bioeconomic model. Working paper series in agricultural and resource economics. University of New England, Armidale, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  25. Laumonier Y (1997) The Vegetation and physiography of Sumatra, Geobotany Series 22. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dorderecht, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  26. Laumonier Y, Gadrinab A, Purnajaya (1983) International map of the Vegetation of Southern Sumatra 1:1,000,000. Institut de la Carte Internationale du Tapis Vegetal and SEAMEO-BIOTROP, Toulose, FranceGoogle Scholar
  27. MacKinnon K, Hatta G, Halim H, Mangalik A (1996) The Ecology of Kalimantan, Vol. III, Periplus edn. SingaporeGoogle Scholar
  28. Nedeco–Euroconsult (1978) Tidal Swampland development project in South Sumatra and Jambi provinces: surveys in the Lagan Area, Vol. III. Nedeco–Euroconsult, Arnhem, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  29. Noor YR, Giesen W, Widjanarti E, Silvius M (1994) Reconnaissance survey of the Tulang Bawang swamps, lampung, Sumatera. Asian Wetland Bureau, BogorGoogle Scholar
  30. Oldeman LR, Las I, Darwin SN (1979) An agroclimatic map of Sumatra. Central Research Institute for Agriculture, Bogor, IndonesiaGoogle Scholar
  31. Page SE, Siegert F, Rieley JO, Boehm H-DV, Jaya A, Limin S (2002) The amount of carbon released from peat and forest fires in Indonesia during 1997. Nature 420:61–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. RePPProT (1990) The land resources of Indonesia: a national overview. Land Resources Department, Natural Resources Institute, Overseas Development Administration London, UK; and Direktorat Bina Program, Direktorat Jenderal, Penyiapan Pemukiman, Departemen Transmigrasi, Jakarta, IndonesiaGoogle Scholar
  33. Siegert F, Ruecker G, Hinrichs A, Hoffmann AA (2001) Increased damage from fires in logged forests during droughts caused by El Niño. Nature 414:437–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Suyanto, Chokkalingam U, Wibowo P (2004) Kebakaran di Lahan Rawa/Gambut di Sumatra: Masalah dan Solusi. Prosiding Semiloka (with English Summary). Palembang, South Sumatra, 10–11 December 2003, Center for International Forestry Research, Bogor, IndonesiaGoogle Scholar
  35. Tacconi L (2003) Fires in Indonesia: causes, costs and policy implications. CIFOR occasional Paper No. 38. Center for International Forestry Research, Bogor, IndonesiaGoogle Scholar
  36. Zieren M, Wiryawan B, Susanto HA (1999) Significant coastal habitats, wildlife and water resources in Lampung. Technical Report (TE-99/07-E), Coastal Resources Management Project Lampung, Coastal Resources Centre, University of Rhode Island, USA, http://www.crc.uri.edu/comm/download/significant_coastal_habitat.pdf

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Unna Chokkalingam
    • 1
  • Suyanto
    • 2
  • Rizki Pandu Permana
    • 2
  • Iwan Kurniawan
    • 1
  • Josni Mannes
    • 1
  • Andy Darmawan
    • 1
  • Noviana Khususyiah
    • 2
  • Robiyanto Hendro Susanto
    • 3
  1. 1.Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR)JakartaIndonesia
  2. 2.World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF)BogorIndonesia
  3. 3.Faculty of AgricultureSriwijaya UniversitySouth SumatraIndonesia

Personalised recommendations