Mitigating Natural Disasters: The Role Of Eco-Ethics
- 181 Downloads
Natural disasters are complex phenomena, the causes of which lie to a large extent in human behavior that creates vulnerable communities. In order to reduce vulnerability and thereby mitigate the risk of disasters, it is important to consider underlying values, particularly with respect to how people view and interact with the natural world. Advancing an interdisciplinary, ecological paradigm, this paper argues that disaster mitigation needs to be addressed through a process that results in a greater emphasis on our interactions with and reliance upon the natural world, and the development of community resilience.
Keywordsecology ethics mitigation natural disaster
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Anderson, M.B.: 2000, Vulnerability to Disaster and Sustainable Development: A General Framework for Assessing Vulnerability, in Piekle and Piekle (eds.), Storms, Vol. 1, New York, Routledge, pp. 10–25.Google Scholar
- Benoît, R., Simon, F. and Rousselle, J.: 2003, The Effectiveness of Flood Damage Reduction Measures in the Montreal Region, Natural Hazards.Google Scholar
- Berkes, F.: 1999, ‘Sacred ecology’, Traditional Knowledge and Resource Management, Philadelphia and London, Taylor and Francis.Google Scholar
- Blaikie, P., Cannon, T., Davis, I. and Wisner, B.: 1994, At Risk – Natural Hazards, People's Vulnerability and Disaster, London, Routledge.Google Scholar
- Booth, A.L. and Jacobs, H.M.: 1993, ‘Ties that Bind: Native American Beliefs as a Foundation for Environmental Consciousness’, in S.J. Armstrong and R.G. Botzler (eds.), Environmental Ethics: Divergence and Convergence, New York, McGraw-Hill, pp. 519–526.Google Scholar
- Brown, D.W., Moin, S.M.A. and Nicolson, M.L.: 1997, ‘A comparison of flooding in Michigan and Ontario: ‘Soft’ data to support ‘soft’ water management approaches’, Canadian Water Resources Journal 22(2), 125–139.Google Scholar
- Brunk, C.: 1993, ‘Technological risk and the nuclear safety debate’, Proceedings from a Workshop, Ottawa, Ontario, Institute for Research on Environmental and Economy, October 1–2, 1993.Google Scholar
- Burton, I., Kates, R. and White, G.: 1993, Environment as Hazard, 2nd edition, New York, The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Callicott, J.B.: 1994, Earth's Insights: A Survey of Ecological Ethics from the Mediterranean Basin to the Australian Outback, Berkeley, CA, University of California Press.Google Scholar
- China Online: 2003, http://www.chinaonline.com/refer/ministry_profiles/threegorgesdam.asp, accessed July 7, 2003.
- Devall, B. and Sessions, G.: 1985, Deep Ecology: Living as if Nature Mattered, Salt Lake City, Peregrine Smith Books.Google Scholar
- Doxiadis, C.A.: 1968, Ekistics: An Introduction to the Science of Human Settlements, New York, Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Environment Canada: 2003, http://www.mb.ec.gc.ca/nature/whp/ramsar/df02s06.en.html, accessed July 7, 2003.
- Environment Canada: 2002, Science and Environment Bulletin, Issue No. 32, September/October 2002. Also available at http://www.ec.gc.ca/science.
- Gelman, O. and Santiago, M.: 1984, ‘Toward a conceptual framework for interdisciplinary disaster research’, in Ekistics 309, 507–510.Google Scholar
- Gunderson, L.H. and Holling, C.S. (eds.): 2001, Panarchy: Understanding Transformations in Human and Natural Systems, Washington, DC, Island Press, pp. 507.Google Scholar
- Hardin, G.: 1968, ‘Tragedy of the Commons’, Science 162,1243–1248.Google Scholar
- Havlick, S.W.: 1984, ‘The urgency of accelerated application of natural hazards research findings in human Settlements’, Ekistics 308, 398–405.Google Scholar
- Haudenosaunee Environmental Task Force: 1992, Words that Come Before All Else: Environmental Philosophies of the Haudenosaunee, Haudenosanunee Task Force.Google Scholar
- Hewitt, K.: 1997, Regions of Risk – A Geographical Introduction to Disasters, England, Longman, p. 389.Google Scholar
- Hoffman, S.: 1998, ‘Eve and adam among the embers: Gendered patterns after the oakland berkeley firestorm’, in Enarson and Morrow, The Gendered Terrain of Disaster: Through Women's Eyes, Florida, Florida International University, pp. 55–62.Google Scholar
- Holling, C.S. and Gunderson, L.H.: 2002, ‘Resilience and adaptive cycles’, in L.H. Gunderson and C.S. Holling (eds.), Panarchy: Understanding Transformations in Human and Natural Systems, pp. 25–62.Google Scholar
- IFRC: 2001, World Disasters Report: Focus on Recovery, Bloomfield, CT, Kumarian Press Inc.Google Scholar
- IMF: 2003, The IMF's Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility, http://www.imf.org/external/np/exr/facts/prgf.htm, accessed July 10, 2003.
- Klein, J.T.: 1990, Interdisciplinarity: History, Theory and Practice, Detroit, Wayne State University Press.Google Scholar
- Larson, L. and Plasencia, D.: 2001, ‘No adverse impact: New direction in floodplain management policy’, Natural Hazards Review 2(4), 157–181.Google Scholar
- Leman, A.B.: 1980, ‘Human settlements: Framework for disaster assessment’, Housing Science 4(6).Google Scholar
- Leopold, A.: 1949, A Sand County Almanac with Other Essays on Conservation from Round River, Reprinted in 1981, New York, Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Mileti, D.: 1999, Disasters by Design – A Reassessment of Natural Hazards in the United States, Washington, Joseph Henry Press.Google Scholar
- Mitchell, J.K.: 1999, ‘Natural disasters in the context of mega-cities’, in J.K. Mitchell (ed.), Crucibles of Hazard: Mega-Cities and Disasters in Transition, New York, United Nations University.Google Scholar
- Molles, M.C., Jr.: 1999, Ecology: Concepts and Applications, New York, McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
- National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration: 2003, Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, NOAA web site, http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/hrd_sub/modification.html, accessed Jan 23, 2003.
- O'Brien, M.: 2000, Making Better Environmental Decisions: An Alternative to Risk Assessment, Cambridge, MA, MIT Press, in association with the Environmental Research Foundation.Google Scholar
- Ostrom, E., Dietz, T., Dolsak, N., Stern, P.C., Stonich, S. and Wever, E.U. (eds.): 2002, ‘The Drama of the Commons’, Committee on the Human Dimensions of Global Change, Washington, DC, National Academy Press, pp. 521.Google Scholar
- Stefanovic, I.L.: 2000, Safeguarding Our Common Future: Rethinking Sustainable Development, Albany, NY, State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
- White, G.: 1999, ‘A conversation with Gilbert F. White’, Environmental Hazards 1, 53–56.Google Scholar
- Worster, D.: 1985, Nature's Economy, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- WMO: 1995, ‘Meeting of experts to review the present status of hail suppression’, World Meteorological Organization, WMP Report No. 26, Golden Gate Highlands National Park, South Africa, WMO/TD No. 764.Google Scholar
- World Bank: 2002, Leadership Capacity Building for Post Conflict Reconstruction, http://www.worldbank.org/wbi/B-SPAN/sub_leadership_postconflict.htm, accessed July 10, 2003.