Minds and Machines

, Volume 27, Issue 3, pp 425–448 | Cite as

Information and the Internet: An Analysis from the Perspective of the Science of the Artificial

  • Maria Jose ArrojoEmail author


This paper provides a novel philosophical approach to the role of information on the internet. The link information-internet is analyzed from the perspective of the sciences of the artificial, to highlight aspects of this field that Herbert Simon did not consider. The analysis follows three steps: (1) the study of the development of Artificial Intelligence as the support of internet for communication processes. This analysis is made to clarify the new communicative designs. (2) The role creativity in the new communication designs is studied. In this regard, there is an interplay between the scientific creativity of human beings making designs and technological innovation of information and communication technologies. (3) The consideration of the transverse and longitudinal novelty that exist in the types of digital communication. They are based on AI built up as a science of the artificial. These types of novelty depend on the interaction between scientific creativity and technological innovation. A central aim of this paper on communication sciences from the perspective of sciences of design is to overcome Simon´s theoretical schemes. His view is mainly focused on structural complexity (holistic complexity and near decomposability). But communicative designs of the internet phenomena require the dynamic complexity. In addition, communication on the internet is based on an internal-external duality, which goes beyond Simon’s approach on the artificial. Thus, the analysis takes into account the new types of communication (such as social networks) and their different levels (micro, meso, and macro).


Artificial intelligence Information Science of design Artificial sciences Communication sciences Internet 


  1. Arrojo, M. J. (2007). Caracterización de las Ciencias de la Comunicación como Ciencias de Diseño: De la racionalidad científica a la racionalidad de los agentes. In W. J. Gonzalez (Ed.), Las Ciencias de Diseño: Racionalidad limitada, predicción y prescripción (pp. 123–145). A Coruña: Netbiblo.Google Scholar
  2. Arrojo, M. J. (2008). La configuración de la television interactiva: De las plataformas digitales a la TDT. A Coruña: Netbiblo.Google Scholar
  3. Arrojo, M. J. (2013). Communication sciences as sciences of the artificial: An analysis of the digital terrestrial television. In H. Andresen, D. Dieks, W. J. Gonzalez, Th Uebel, & G. Wheeler (Eds.), New Challenges to philosophy of science (pp. 325–336). Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arrojo, M. J. (2014). La televisión social revoluciona la televisión tradicional: Hacia un nuevo modelo de televisión participativa. Cuadernos Artesanos de Comunicación, 64(2014), 29–44.Google Scholar
  5. Arrojo, M. J. (2015a). La complejidad como marco de estudio para las Ciencias de la Comunicación. Argos, 32(62), 17–34.Google Scholar
  6. Arrojo, M. J. (2015b). Los contenidos transmedia y la renovación de formatos periodísticos: la creatividad en el diseño de nuevas propuestas informativas”. Palabra Clave, 18(3), 746–787.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Baron, N. (2008). Always on: Language in an online and mobile world. NY: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bell, E. (2016). Facebook is eating the world. Resource document. Columbia Journalism Review Accessed August 8, 2016.
  9. Bell, E. (2016). The end of the news as we kow it: How facebook swallowed journalism. Resource document. Tow Center: Center for Digital Journalism at Columbia Graduate School of Journalism. Accessed August 9, 2016.
  10. Bhargava, R. (2009). Manifesto for the content curator: the next big social media job of the future? Resource document. Accessed August 8, 2016.
  11. Bishop, R. C. (2007). The philosophy of social sciences. London: Continuum.Google Scholar
  12. Bull, M. (2007). Sound moves. iPod culture and urban experience. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  13. Carlson, M. (2015). The robotic reporter. Digital Journalism, 3(3), 416–431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Castells, M., Fernandez-Ardevol, M., Linchuan, J., & Sey, A. (2007). Mobile communication and society: A global perspective. Cambridge: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
  15. Claiborne, A., Stephenson, C., Atkinson, C., et al. (2015). Sentience: The coming ai revolution and the implications for marketing. London: PHD.Google Scholar
  16. Crutchfield, J. P., & Van Nimwegen, E. (1995). The evolutionary unfolding of complexity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 92(23), 10742–10746.CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  17. Dasgupta, S. (2003). Multidisciplinary creativity: The case of Herbert A. Simon. Cognitive Science, 27, 683–707.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Diakopoulos, N. (2014). Diversity in the Robot Reporter Newsroom. Nick Diakopoulosmusings on media. Resource document. Accessed August 5, 2016.
  19. Dopfer, K. (2004). Micro-meso-macro. Journal of Evolutionary Economics, 14(3), 263–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Echeverría, J. (2006). Cosmopólitas domésticos. Barcelona: Anagrama.Google Scholar
  21. Echeverría, J. (1999). Los Señores del Aire: Telépolis y el Tercer Entorno. Barcelona: Destino.Google Scholar
  22. Ess, C. (2004). Computer-mediated communication and human-computer interaction. In L. Floridi (Ed.), The blackwell guide to the philosophy of computing and information (pp. 76–91). Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  23. Fetzer, J. H. (2004). The Philosophy of AI and its Critique. In L. Floridi (Ed.), The blackwell guide to the philosophy of computing and information (pp. 119–134). Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  24. Floridi, L. (1995). Internet: Which future for organized knowledge, frankenstein or pygmalion? International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 43(2), 261–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Floridi, L. (1999). A revolution called internet. In L. Floridi (Ed.), Philosophy and computing. An introduction (pp. 54–87). Oxford: Routledge.Google Scholar
  26. Floridi, L. (2007). A look into de the future impact of ICT in our lives. The Information Society, 23(1), 59–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Floridi, L. (2011). The philosophy of information. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  28. Franklin, S. (2014). History, motivations, and core themes. In K. Frankish & W. Ramsey (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of artificial intelligence (pp. 15–33). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Goggin, G. (2006, 2012). Cell phone culture: Mobile technology in everyday life. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  30. Gonzalez, W. J. (1996). El problema del objeto de la Ciencia de la Historia y la Teoría de la Acción. In W. J. Gonzalez (Ed.), Acción e Historia. El objeto de la Historia y la Teoría de la Acción (pp. 57–58). A Coruña: Publicaciones Universidad de A Coruña.Google Scholar
  31. Gonzalez, W. J. (1998). Prediction and prescription in economics: A philosophical and methodological approach. Theoria, 13(32), 321–345.Google Scholar
  32. Gonzalez, W. J. (2005). The philosophical approach to science, technology and society. In W. J. Gonzalez (Ed.), Science, technology and society: A philosophical perspective (pp. 3–49). A Coruña: Netbiblo.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gonzalez, W. J. (2007). Configuración de las Ciencias de Diseño como Ciencias de lo Artificial: Papel de la Inteligencia Artificial y de la racionalidad limitada. In W. J. Gonzalez (Ed.), Las Ciencias de Diseño. Racionalidad limitada, predicción y prescripción (pp. 41–69). A Coruña: Netbiblo.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gonzalez, W. J. (2008a). La televisión interactiva y las Ciencias de lo Artificial. In M. J. Arrojo (Ed.), La configuración de la televisión interactiva De las plataformas digitales a la TDT (pp. xi–xvii). A Coruña: Netbiblo.Google Scholar
  35. Gonzalez, W. J. (2008b). Rationality and prediction in the sciences of the artificial: economics as a design science. In M. C. Galavotti, R. Scazzieri, & P. Suppes (Eds.), Reasoning, rationality, and probability (pp. 165–186). Stanford: CSLI Publications.Google Scholar
  36. Gonzalez, W. J. (2008c). Evolutionism from a contemporary viewpoint: The philosophical-methodological approach. In W. J. Gonzalez (Ed.), Evolutionism: Present approaches (pp. 3–59). A Coruña: Netbiblo.Google Scholar
  37. Gonzalez, W. J. (2011). Conceptual changes and scientific diversity: The role of historicity. In W. J. Gonzalez (Ed.), Conceptual revolutions: From cognitive science to medicine (pp. 39–62). A Coruña: Netbiblo.Google Scholar
  38. Gonzalez, W. J. (2012). Las Ciencias de Diseño en cuanto Ciencias de la Complejidad: Análisis de la Economía, Documentación y Comunicación. In W. J. Gonzalez (Ed.), Las Ciencias de la Complejidad: Vertiente dinámica de las Ciencias de Diseño y sobriedad de factores (pp. 7–30). A Coruña: Netbiblo.Google Scholar
  39. Gonzalez, W. J. (2013). The roles of scientific creativity and technological innovation in the context of complexity of science. In W. J. Gonzalez (Ed.), Creativity, innovation, and complexity in science (pp. 11–40). A Coruña: Netbiblo.Google Scholar
  40. Gonzalez, W. J. (2015). Philosophico-methodological analysis of prediction and its role in economics. Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gonzalez, W. J., & Arrojo, M. J. (2015). Diversity in complexity in communication sciences: Epistemological and ontological analyses. In D. Generali (Ed.), Le radici della razionalita critica: Saperi, Pratiche, Teleology (Vol. 1, pp. 297–312). Milan-Udine: Mimesis Edizioni.Google Scholar
  42. Graefe, A. (2016). Guide to automated journalism. Resource document. Tow Center for Digital Journalism, (Blog: 07/01/2016). Accessed 7 August 2016.
  43. Graham, G. (1999). Internet: Una indagación filosófica. Madrid: Cátedra.Google Scholar
  44. Imran, M., Castillo, C., Lucas, J., Meier, P. & Vieweg, S. (2014). AIDR: Artificial intelligence for disaster response. Resource document. Proceedings WWW’14 Companion, April 7–11, 2014, Seoul, Korea. ACM. 978-1-4503-2745-9/14/04 Accessed August 9, 2016.
  45. Ito, M., Baumer, S., Bittani, M., Cody, R., & Stephenson, B. H. (2010). Hanging out, messingaaround, and geeking out: Kids living and learning with new media. Cambridge: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
  46. Kryssanov, V. V., Tamaki, H., & Kitamura, S. (2005). Evolutionary design: Philosophy, theory, and application tactics. CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Systems, 34(2). Accessed August 5, 2016.
  47. Latar, N. L. (2015). The robot journalist in the age of social physics: The end of human journalism? In G. Einav (Ed.), The new world of transitioned media: Digital realignment and industry transformation (pp. 65–80). Cham: Springer.Google Scholar
  48. Lijenström, H., & Svedin, U. (Eds.). (2005). Micro, meso, macro: Addressing complex systems couplings. London: World Scientific.Google Scholar
  49. Lokot, T., & Diakopoulos, N. (2016). News bots: Automating news and information dissemination on Twitter. Digital Journalism, 4(6), 682–699. Accessed August 9, 2016.
  50. Marconi, F. (2016). Imagining a newsroom powered by artificial intelligence. Resource document. Tow Center for Digital Journalism, Columbia Journalism School, (blog 27/04/2016) Accessed August 9, 2016.
  51. McShea, D. W. (1991). Complexity and evolution: What everybody knows. Biology and philosophy, 6. (Reprinted in D. Hull & M. Ruse (Eds.) (1998). The philosophy of biology). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  52. Niiniluoto, I. (1993). The aim and the structure of applied research. Erkenntnis, 38, 1–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Ombelet, P.-J., Kuczerawy, A., & Valcke, P. (2016). Supervising automated journalists in the newsrooms: Liability for algorithmically produced news stories. Resource document. Forthcoming in Revue du Droit des Technologies de l’Information (Summer 2016) CiTiP Working Paper 25/2016 Accessed August 8, 2016.
  54. Oremus, W. (2014). The first news report on the L.A. earthquake was written by a robot. Resource document. Slate Accessed August 8, 2016.
  55. Reeves, J. (2016). Automatic for the people: The automation for communicative labor. Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies. doi: 10.1080/14791420.2015.1108450.Google Scholar
  56. Rescher, N. (1995). Process metaphysics. Albany: SUNY Press.Google Scholar
  57. Rescher, N. (1998). Complexity: A philosophical overview. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  58. Robertson, R. (1995). Time-space and homogeneity-heterogeneity. In M. Featherstone, S. Lash, & R. Robertson (Eds.), Global modernities (pp. 25–44). London: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Simon, H. A. (1962). The architecture of complexity. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 106(6), 467–482.Google Scholar
  60. Simon, H. A. (1973). The organization of complex systems. In H. H. Pattee (Ed.), Hierarchy theory (pp. 3–27). N. York, NY: G. Braziller. (Reprinted in Simon, H. A. (1977). Models of discovery (pp. 245–264)). Boston: Reidel.Google Scholar
  61. Simon, H. A. (1990). Prediction and prescription in systems modeling. Operations Research, 38, 7–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Simon, H. A. (1996). The sciences of the artificial (3rd ed.). Cambridge: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
  63. Simon, H. A. (2002). Near decomposability and the speed of evolution. Industrial and Corporate Change, 11(3), 587–599.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Turing, A. (1951). Intelligent machinery, a heretical theory. (Reprinted in S. Shieber (Ed.). (2004). The turing test: Verbal behaviour as the hallmark of intelligence (pp. 105–110)). Cambridge: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
  65. Turing, A. (1951). Intelligent machinery, a heretical theory. (Reprinted in C. Copeland (Ed.) Essential turing. Seminal writing in computing, logic, philosophy, artificial intelligence, and art life: Plus the secrets of enigma (pp. 465–475)). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  66. Urquhart, A. (2004). Complexity. In L. Floridi (Ed.), The blackwell guide to the philosophy of computing and information (pp. 18–27). Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  67. Valcke, P., Lenaerts, M., & Kuczerawy, A. (2010). Who’s the author, editor and publisher in user-generated content? Applying traditional media concepts to UGC providers. International Review of Law, Computers and Technology, 24(1), 119–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Wang, P., & Ye, H.W. (2009). Personalized recommendation algorithm combining slope one scheme and user based collaborative filtering. Resource document. Proceedings Industrial and Information Systems. IIS’09 International Conference Accessed August 8, 2016.
  69. Wellman, B. (2002). Little boxes, glocalization, and networked individualism. In M. Tanabe, P. van den Besselaar, & T. Ishida (Eds.), Digital cities (pp. 10–25). Verlag Berlin Heidelberg: Springer.Google Scholar
  70. Young, M. L., & Hermida, A. (2015). From Mr. and Mrs. outlier to central tendencies: computational journalism and crime reporting at the Los Angeles times. Digital Journalism, 3(3), 381–397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Media Sources

  1. BBC World. (2014). El robot que escribe noticias debuta en Los Angeles. (Publishing date 14/03/2014). Resource document. Accessed August 8, 2016.
  2. Oremus, W. (2014). The first news report on the L. A. Earthquake was Written by a Robot. Slate. (Publishing date 17/03/2014). Accesed August 10, 2016.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of A CorunaCorunaSpain

Personalised recommendations