Significance of Models of Computation, from Turing Model to Natural Computation
The increased interactivity and connectivity of computational devices along with the spreading of computational tools and computational thinking across the fields, has changed our understanding of the nature of computing. In the course of this development computing models have been extended from the initial abstract symbol manipulating mechanisms of stand-alone, discrete sequential machines, to the models of natural computing in the physical world, generally concurrent asynchronous processes capable of modelling living systems, their informational structures and dynamics on both symbolic and sub-symbolic information processing levels. Present account of models of computation highlights several topics of importance for the development of new understanding of computing and its role: natural computation and the relationship between the model and physical implementation, interactivity as fundamental for computational modelling of concurrent information processing systems such as living organisms and their networks, and the new developments in logic needed to support this generalized framework. Computing understood as information processing is closely related to natural sciences; it helps us recognize connections between sciences, and provides a unified approach for modeling and simulating of both living and non-living systems.
KeywordsPhilosophy of computer science Philosophy of computing Theory of computation Hypercomputing Philosophy of information Models of computation
- Abramsky, S. (1997). Semantics of interaction: An introduction to game semantics. In P. Dybjer & A. Pitts (Eds.), Proceedings of the 1996 CLiCS Summer School, Isaac Newton Institute (pp. 1–31). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Abramsky, S. (2007). A compositional game semantics for multi-agent logics of imperfect information in interactive logic. In J. van Benthem, D. Gabbay, & B. Lowe (Eds.), Texts in logic and games, Vol. 1 (pp. 11–48). Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.Google Scholar
- Abramsky, S. (2008). Petri nets, discrete physics, and distributed quantum computation. In P. Degano, R. De Nicola and J. Meseguer (Eds.), Concurrency, graphs and models, essays dedicated to Ugo Montanari on the occasion of his 65th birthday, Vol. 5065 of lecture notes in computer science. Springer, 527–543.Google Scholar
- Abramsky, S., & Coecke, B. (2007). Physics from computer science, Int. Journal of Unconventional Computing, 3(3), 179–197.Google Scholar
- Allo, P. (2007). Formalising semantic information. Lessons from logical pluralism. In G. Dodig-Crnkovic & S. Stuart (Eds.), Computation, information, cognition: The Nexus and the Liminal (pp. 41–52). Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.Google Scholar
- Ashby, W. R. (1964). An introduction to cybernetics. London: Methuen.Google Scholar
- Beall, J.C., Restall, G. (2005). Logical Consequence, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2005 Edition). In: Edward N. Zalta (ed.). URL = <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2005/entries/logical-consequence/>.
- Benthem van, J. (2001). Extensive games as process models. In M. Pauly & P. Dekker, (Eds.), Special issue of Journal of logic, language and information, 11, 289–313.Google Scholar
- Burgin, M. (1999). Super-recursive algorithms as a tool for high performance computing. In Proceedings of high performance computing symposium, San Diego, 224–228. http://www.math.ucla.edu/~mburgin/res/compsc/res2/highperfcomp.html
- Burgin, M. (2005). Super-recursive algorithms. Springer Monographs in Computer Science.Google Scholar
- Cantwell Smith, B. (1996). On the origin of objects. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
- Chaitin, G. J. (2006). Epistemology as information theory: From Leibniz to Ω. Collapse, 1, 27–51.Google Scholar
- Church, A. (1935). Abstract no. 204. Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society, 41, 332–333.Google Scholar
- Cooper, S. B., Löwe, B., & Sorbi, A., Eds. (2008). New computational paradigms: Changing conceptions of what is computable. Springer.Google Scholar
- Copeland, B. J. (1997). ‘The Church–Turing thesis’. In E. Zalta (Ed.), Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy, <http://plato.stanford.edu>.
- Denning, P. (2007). Computing is a natural science, communications of the ACM, 50(7), 13–18. http://cs.gmu.edu/cne/pjd/PUBS/CACMcols/cacmJul07.pdf.
- Dodig-Crnkovic, G. (2003). ‘Shifting the paradigm of the philosophy of science: The philosophy of information and a new renaissance’. Minds and Machines, 13(4), 521–536. http://www.springerlink.com/content/g14t483510156726/fulltext.pdf.
- Dodig-Crnkovic, G. (2006). Investigations into information semantics and ethics of computing. Mälardalen University Press http://www.idt.mdh.se/personal/gdc/work/publications.html.
- Dodig-Crnkovic, G. (2010). The cybersemiotics and info-computationalist research programmes as platforms for knowledge production in organisms and machines, entropy 12, 878–901. http://www.mdpi.com/1099-4300/12/4/878/pdf
- Dodig-Crnkovic, G., & Müller, V. (2010). A dialogue concerning two world systems: Info-computational versus mechanistic. In Information and computation. World Scientific, Singapore. Preprint available at: http://arxiv.org/abs/0910.5001
- Dodig-Crnkovic, G., & Stuart, S. (Eds.). (2007). Computation, information, cognition–The Nexus and the Liminal. Cambridge: Cambridge Scholar Press.Google Scholar
- Floridi, L. (2004). Open problems in the philosophy of information. Metaphilosophy, 35.4, 554–582.Google Scholar
- Goldin, D., Smolka, S., & Wegner P. (Eds.). (2006). Interactive computation: The new paradigm. Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
- Goldin, D., & Wegner, P. (2002). Paraconsistency of interactive computation, PCL 2002 (Workshop on paraconsistent computational logic). Denmark.Google Scholar
- Hodges, W. (2004). Logic and Games, The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Winter 2004 Edition). Edward N. Zalta (Ed.). URL = <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2004/entries/logic-games/>.
- Hodges, A. (2009). Alan Turing, The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Winter 2009 Edition). In Edward N. Zalta (Ed.). URL = <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2009/entries/turing/>.
- Japaridze, G. (2006). In the beginning was game semantics. In O. Majer, A.-V. Pietarinen, & T. Tulenheimo (Eds.), Logic and games: Foundational perspectives. Berlin: Springer Verlag.Google Scholar
- Kampis, G. (1991). Self-modifying systems in biology and cognitive science: A new framework for dynamics, information and complexity. Pergamon: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
- Kuipers, T. A. F. (2006). Theories looking for domains. Fact or fiction? Structuralist truth approximation by revision of the domain of intended applications, to appear. In L. Magnani (ed.), Model-based reasoning in science and engineering.Google Scholar
- Lloyd, S. (2006). Programming the universe: A quantum computer scientist takes on the cosmos. In Alfred A. Knopf.Google Scholar
- Priest, G., & Tanaka, K. (2004). Paraconsistent Logic, The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Winter 2004 Edition). In Edward N. Zalta (Ed.). URL = <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2004/entries/logic-paraconsistent/>.
- Rozenberg, G., & Kari, L. (2008). The many facets of natural computing. Communications of the ACM, 51, 72–83.Google Scholar
- Schachter, V. (1999). How does concurrency extend the paradigm of computation? Monist, 82(1), 37–58.Google Scholar
- Sieg, W. (2007). Church without dogma–Axioms for computability. In B. Löwe, A. Sorbi, & S. B. Cooper (Eds.), New computational paradigms: Changing conceptions of what is computable (pp. 18–44). Heidelberg: Springer.Google Scholar
- Siegelman, H. T. (1999). Neural networks and analog computation. Berlin: Birkhauser.Google Scholar
- Sloman, A. (1996). Beyond Turing equivalence. In P.J.R. Millican & A. Clark (Eds.), Machines and thought: The legacy of Alan Turing, vol I, OUP(The Clarendon Press) pp 179–219, Revised version of paper presented to Turing Colloquium, University of Sussex, 1990. http://www.cs.bham.ac.uk/research/projects/cogaff/96-99.html#1
- Turing A. M. (1936). On computable numbers, with an application to the Entscheidungsproblem. In Proceedings of the London mathematical society, Vol. 42, pp. 230–265; reprinted in A. M. Turing, Collected works: mathematical logic, 18–53.Google Scholar
- Turing A. M. (1939). Systems of logic based on ordinals.In Proceedings of the London mathematical society, ser. 2, Vol. 45, 162–228.Google Scholar
- Turing, A. M. (1948). ‘Intelligent machinery’. National Physical Laboratory Report. In B. Meltzer, D. Michie (Eds.), 1969. Machine intelligence 5. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. http://www.AlanTuring.net/intelligent_machinery.
- Turing, A. M. (1950). Computing machinery and intelligence, Mind LIX, 433–60. http://cogprints.org/499/0/turing.html
- Wolfram, S. (2002) A new kind of science. Wolfram Science.Google Scholar