, Volume 74, Issue 4, pp 440–447 | Cite as

Methylophaga murata sp. nov.: a Haloalkaliphilic Aerobic Methylotroph from Deteriorating Marble

  • N. V. Doronina
  • Ts. D. Lee
  • E. G. Ivanova
  • Yu. A. Trotsenko
Experimental Articles


The haloalkaliphilic methylotrophic bacterium (strain Kr3) isolated from material scraped off the deteriorating marble of the Moscow Kremlin masonry has been found to be able to utilize methanol, methylamine, trimethylamine, and fructose as carbon and energy sources. Its cells are gram-negative motile rods multiplying by binary fission. Spores are not produced. The isolate is strictly aerobic and requires vitamin B12 and Na+ ions for growth. It is oxidase- and catalase-positive and reduces nitrates to nitrites. Growth occurs at temperatures between 0 and 40°C (with the optimum temperatures being 20–32°C), pH values between 6 and 11 (with the optimum at 8–9), and NaCl concentrations between 0.05 and 3 M (with the optimum at 0.5–1.5 M). The dominant cellular phospholipids are phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, and cardiolipin. The major cellular fatty acids are palmitic (C16:0), palmitoleic (C16:1), and octadecenoic (C18:1) acids. The major ubiquinone is Q8. It accumulates ectoine and glutamate, as well as a certain amount of sucrose, to function as osmoprotectants and synthesizes an exopolysaccharide composed of carbohydrate and protein components. It is resistant to heating at 70°C, freezing, and drying; utilizes methanol, with the resulting production of formic acid, which is responsible for the marble-degrading activity of the isolate; and implements the 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogluconate variant of the ribulose monophosphate pathway. The G+C content of its DNA is 44.6 mol %. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing and DNA-DNA homology levels (23–41%) with neutrophilic and alkaliphilic methylobacteria from the genus Methylophaga, the isolate has been identified as a new species, Methylophaga murata (VKM B-2303T = NCIMB 13993T).

Key words

Methylophaga murata marble restricted facultative methylotroph haloalkaliphile ribulose monophosphate pathway osmoprotectants ectoine 


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Copyright information

© MAIK “Nauka/Interperiodica” 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. V. Doronina
    • 1
  • Ts. D. Lee
    • 2
  • E. G. Ivanova
    • 1
  • Yu. A. Trotsenko
    • 1
  1. 1.Skryabin Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of MicroorganismsRussian Academy of SciencesPushchino, Moscow oblastRussia
  2. 2.Pushchino State UniversityPushchino, Moscow oblastRussia

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