Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics

, Volume 27, Issue 4, pp 285–304 | Cite as

The Regulation of Animal Research and the Emergence of Animal Ethics: A Conceptual History

  • Bernard E. Rollin


The history of the regulation of animal research is essentially the history of the emergence of meaningful social ethics for animals in society. Initially, animal ethics concerned itself solely with cruelty, but this was seen as inadequate to late 20th-century concerns about animal use. The new social ethic for animals was quite different, and its conceptual bases are explored in this paper. The Animal Welfare Act of 1966 represented a very minimal and in many ways incoherent attempt to regulate animal research, and is far from morally adequate. The 1985 amendments did much to render coherent the ethic for laboratory animals, but these standards were still inadequate in many ways, as enumerated here. The philosophy underlying these laws is explained, their main provisions are explored, and future directions that could move the ethic forward and further rationalize the laws are sketched.


animal ethics animal experimentation animal laws animal research regulation animal research ethics 


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I would like to thank David DeGrazia for helpful suggestions in the development of this article.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PhilosophyColorado State UniversityFort CollinsUSA

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