Advertisement

Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics

, Volume 27, Issue 1, pp 59–79 | Cite as

Developing Sustainability: A New Metaphor for Progress

  • Cécile M. BensimonEmail author
  • Solomon R. Benatar
Article

Abstract

In this paper, we propose a new model for development, one that transcends the North–South dichotomy and goes beyond a narrow conception of development as an economic process. This model requires a paradigm shift toward a new metaphor that develops sustainability, rather than sustains development. We conclude by defending a ‘report card on development’ as a means for evaluating how countries perform within this new paradigm.

Keywords

development free trade growth health report card sustainability security underdevelopment 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Acharya, A. Human Security, Identity Politics, and Global Governance: From Freedom from Fear to Fear of Freedoms, p. 2 (presented at the international conference, Civil Society, Religion, and Global Governance: Paradigms of Power and Persuasion, Canberra, Australia, September 2005). http://law.anu.edu.au/niss1/acharya.pdf.
  2. Aginam, O. ‘From Rio to Johannesburg: the Pessimism of Sustainable Development and the Optimism of Sustainable Livelihoods: Two Cases from Nigeria’. Paper presented at the conference, ‘After Johannesburg: New Strategies for Sustainable Livelihoods’, Toronto, Canada, September 27–28, 2002. http://www.yorku.ca/fes/strategies/aginam.pdf.
  3. Attaran, A., Sachs, J. 2000‘Defining and Refining International Donor Support for Combating the AIDS Pandemic’Lancet3575761Google Scholar
  4. Bakker, I., Gill, S. 2003Power, Production and Social Reproduction: Human in/Security in the Global Political EconomyPalgrave MacmillanBasingstokeGoogle Scholar
  5. Benatar, S.R. 1997‘Streams of Global Change’Bankowski, Z.Bryant and, J.H.Gallagher, J. eds. Ethics, Equity and Health for AllCIOMSGenevaGoogle Scholar
  6. Benatar, S.R. 1998‘Global Disparities in Health and Human Rights’American Journal of Public Health88295300Google Scholar
  7. Benatar, S.R. 2001‘The Coming Catastrophe in International Health’International Journal4611631Google Scholar
  8. Benatar, S.R., Daar, A., Singer, P. 2003‘Global Health Ethics: A Rationale For Mutual Caring’International Affairs79107138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ben-David, D., Nordstrom, H., Winters, L.A. 1999Trade, Income Disparity and PovertyWTO Publications, International Monetary FundGenevaGoogle Scholar
  10. Birdsall, N. and M. Clemens. From Promise to Performance: How Rich Countries Can Help Poor Countries Help Themselves. Washington, D.C.: Center for Global Development, 2003. http://www.cgdev.org/Publications/?PubID=35.
  11. Blackwell, T., Seabrook, J. 1993Revolt Against Change: Towards a Conserving RadicalismVintageLondonGoogle Scholar
  12. Bond, P. 1999‘Globalisation, Pharmaceutical Pricing and South African Health Policy’International Journal of Health Sciences29765792Google Scholar
  13. Buchanan, D. 2001An Ethic for Health PromotionOxford University PressNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  14. Butler, C. 2000‘Inequality, Global Change and the Sustainability of Civilisation’Global Change and Human Health1156172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Central Intelligence Agency. The Global Infectious Disease Threat And Its Implications For The United States (NIE 99-17D). Washington, D.C.: Central Intelligence Agency, 2000. http://www.cia.gov/cia/reports/nie/report/nie99-17d.html.
  16. Chambers, R. 1983Rural Development: Putting the Last FirstLongmanEnglandGoogle Scholar
  17. Clinton, W.J. ‘Remarks by the President on Keeping America Secure for the 21st century’. Remarks presented at the National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., January 22, 1999. http://clinton4.nara.gov/textonly/WH/New/html/19990 122-7214.html.
  18. Cornia, G.A., Jolly, R., Stewart, F. 1987Adjustment with a Human Face: Protecting the Vulnerable and Promoting GrowthOxford University PressOxfordGoogle Scholar
  19. Corporate Europe Observatory. ‘World Summit on Sustainable Development: A Little More Conservation, A Little Less Action’. Global Policy Forum, 2002. http://www.globalpolicy.org/reform/business/2002/sdtalk.htm.
  20. Cox, R.W. 1986‘Social Forces, States and World Orders: Beyond International Relations Theory’Keohane, R. eds. Neorealism and its CriticsColumbia University PressNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  21. Commission on Health Research for Development1990Health Research: Essential Link to Equity in DevelopmentOxford University PressOxfordGoogle Scholar
  22. Crocker, D.A. 2002‘Development Ethics and Globalization’Philosophy and Public Policy Quarterly221320Google Scholar
  23. De Larrinaga, M. ‘Re-defining Security, Critical Theory and Post-modernism: Sojourns into the Development of a Framework of Study’. Unpublished Paper, University of Ottawa, 1994.Google Scholar
  24. Esty, D.C. 2002‘The World Trade Organization Legitimacy Crisis’World Trade Review1722Google Scholar
  25. Farmer, P.E., Walton, D., Tarter, L. 2000‘Infections and Inequalities’Global Change and Human Health194109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Foreign Policy and Center for Global Development. ‘Ranking the Rich’. Foreign Policy, May/June, 2003, http://www.foreignpolicy.com/story/story.php?storyID= 13656&PHPSESSID=b555cceffffcbl1780924615522921aaf.
  27. Frazier, J.G. 1997‘Sustainable Development: Modern Elixir or Sack Dress?’Environmental Conservation24182193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Friends of the Earth International. ‘Big Business Rules? Corporate Accountability and the Johannesburg Summit’. 2002. http://www.globalpolicy.org/reform/business/2002/foebusiness.htm.
  29. Gill, S. 1998‘New Constitutionalism, Democratisation and Global Political Economy’Pacifica Review102338Google Scholar
  30. Glasby, G.P. 2002‘Sustainable Development: The Need for a New Paradigm’Environment, Development and Sustainability4333345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gomberg, P. 2002‘Fallacy of Philanthropy’Canadian Journal of Philosophy322966Google Scholar
  32. Helmore, K., Singh, N. 2001Sustainable LivelihoodsKumarian Press Inc.BloomfieldGoogle Scholar
  33. Henry, C., Farmer, P. 1999‘Risk Analysis: Infections and Inequalities in a Globalizing Era’Development423134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Igelhart, J. 1999‘American Health System Expenditures’New England Journal of Medicine3407076Google Scholar
  35. Institute of Medicine of the National Academies1997America’s Vital Interest in Global Health: Protecting our People, Enhancing our Economy, and Advancing our International Interests, Annual ReportInstitute of Medicine of the National AcademiesWashington D.CGoogle Scholar
  36. Japan Ministry of Foreign Affairs. International Monetary Fund (2000) The Global Poverty Report. July 2000, http://www.mofa.go.jp/policy/oda/poverty/report007. html.
  37. Kaplan, J. ‘Unit 4 – Special Topics in Economics’. United Nations 2002 World Summit in Johannesburg (World Summit on Sustainable Development). 2003, http://www.colorado.edu/Economics/courses/econ2020/section4/section4-main.html.
  38. Keohane, R. 1986Neorealism and its CriticsColumbia University PressNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  39. Low, N., Gleeson, B. 1998Justice, Society and Nature: An Exploration of Political EcologyRoutledgeOxfordGoogle Scholar
  40. Manoochehri, J. 2002‘Post-Rio “Sustainable Consumption: Establishing Coherence and a Common Platform”’Development455157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. McGwire, M. 2001‘The Paradigm that Lost its Way’International Affairs77777803Google Scholar
  42. McMichael, A.J. 1993Planetary Overload. Global Environmental Change and the Health of The Human SpeciesCambridge University PressCambridgeGoogle Scholar
  43. McMichael, A.J. 2001Human Frontiers, Environments and Disease: Past Patterns, Uncertain FuturesCambridge University PressCambridgeGoogle Scholar
  44. McMichael, A.J., Butler, C. 2004‘Climate Change, Health, and Development Goals’Lancet36420042006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. M’Gonigle, M., Dempsey, J. 2003‘Ecological Innovation in an Age of Bureaucratic Closure: The Case of the Global Forest’Studies in Political Economy7097124Google Scholar
  46. OECD, World Bank. Attacking Poverty: World Development Report 2000/2001, Development Cooperation 2000 Report. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.Google Scholar
  47. Polayni, K. 1957The Great Transformation: The Political and Economic Origins of Our TimeBeacon PressBoston (reprinted in 2001)Google Scholar
  48. Rahnema, M., Bawtree, V. 1997The Post-Development ReaderFernwood PublishingHalifaxGoogle Scholar
  49. Rees, W. 1995‘Revisiting Carrying Capacity: Area-Based Indicators of Sustainability’Population and Environment: A Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies17195215Google Scholar
  50. Robertson, A. 2001‘Critical Reflections on the Politics of Need: Implications for Public Health’Social Science and Medicine4714191431Google Scholar
  51. Royal Danish Ministry for Foreign Affairs2000Building a Global Community: Globalization and the Common GoodRoyal Danish Ministry for Foreign AffairsCopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  52. Sandbrook, R. 2003Civilising Globalization: A Survival GuideState University of New York PressAlbanyGoogle Scholar
  53. Sandbrook, R. 2000‘Globalisation and the Limits of Neo-Liberal Development Doctrine’Third World Quarterly2110711180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Sandbrook, R. 2000Closing the Circle: Democratisation and Development in AfricaZed BooksLondonGoogle Scholar
  55. Scowen, P. 2003Rogue NationMcClelland & StewartTorontoGoogle Scholar
  56. Sen, A.K. 1992Inequality Re-examinedRussell Sage FoundationNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  57. Sen, G. 1999‘Engendering Poverty Alleviation: Challenges and Opportunities’Development and Change30685692Google Scholar
  58. Sivard, R.L. 1996World Military and Social Expenditure16World PrioritiesWashington D.CGoogle Scholar
  59. Stephens, C., Lewin, S., Leonardi, G., Chasco, M.S.S., Shaw, R. 2000‘Health, Sustainability and Equity: Global Trade in the Brave New World’Global Change and Human Health14458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. The Energy and Resources Institute. Consensus sans Commitment: TERI’s Review and Critique of the World Summit on Sustainable Development. 2002, http://www.teriin.org/wssd/consensus.pdf.
  61. United Nations Committee on Information. ‘Press Release DPI/2277’. United Nations, 2002, http://www.un.org/ga/coi/315SPDC2003annex.pdf.
  62. United Nations Development Programme1999Human Development Report 1999Oxford University PressNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  63. United Nations Development Programme2003Millennium Development Goals: A Compact among Nations to End Human Poverty, Human Development Report 2003Oxford University PressNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  64. United Nations Environment Programme1999Global Environment OutlookEarthscan PublicationsKenyaGoogle Scholar
  65. Wackernagel, M., Rees, W. 1995Our Ecological Footprint: Reducing Human Impact on EarthNew Society PublishersGabriola IslandGoogle Scholar
  66. Warner, R. 2002‘Competitiveness Versus Sustainability: Canada, Free Trade and the Global Environment’Studies in Political Economy6885106Google Scholar
  67. Weber, H. 2002‘The Imposition of a Global Development Architecture: The Example of Microcredit’Review of International Studies28537555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. World Commission on Environment and Development1987Our Common Future: The Bruntland Report, ReportOxford University PressOxfordGoogle Scholar
  69. Worldwatch Institute. Advertising Spending Stays Nearly Flat. World Watch Vital Signs. Washington D.C.: Worldwatch Institute, 2003, http://www.worldwatch.org/topics/vsow.
  70. World Health Organization. World Health Report 1999: Making a Difference. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1999, http://www.who.int/whr2001/2001/archives/1999/en/pdf/whr99.pdf.

Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Joint Centre for Bioethics and the Institute of Medical ScienceUniversity of TorontoCanada
  2. 2.Bioethics Centre, Department of MedicineUniversity of Cape TownSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations