How theoretical physics makes progress
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“A weaker version of Hume’s problem [of induction]: When theories are accepted in science on the basis of empirical success, what are (or what ought to be) the precise methods employed to determine this acceptance, and what is the rationale for holding that theories so accepted constitute genuine contributions to scientific knowledge?” (6).
The problem of the underdetermination of theory by evidence: “How can there be scientific progress, at the level of theory at least, if available empirical data must always be predicted equally successfully by infinitely many different theories?” (2).
The problem of verisimilitude: “If we could make sense of the idea that, given two false theories, one may nevertheless be closer to the truth than the other, then we could at least in turn make sense of the idea that...
- Van Riel, Raphael and van Gulick, Robert. 2016. Scientific Reduction. In Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, ed. E.N. Zalta (Winter 2016 Edition). https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2016/entries/scientific-reduction/.