Role of Vanadium in Aluminum Electrolyzer Melts

  • E. S. GorlanovEmail author
  • A. A. Batrachenko
  • B. Sh.-A. Smailov
  • A. Yu. Morozov

The article provides results of testing excess introduction of vanadium into a molten aluminum cell through baked anodes. This stage of special technology is preliminary and required before the boriding heavy metal impurities in molten aluminum. The requirement of a preliminary stage is dictated by the presence of an insulating aluminum carbide layer on the surface of the carbon hearth that reduces the efficiency of aluminum boriding technology. The specific properties of vanadium and its compounds make it possible to organize chemical cleaning of the cathode from an Al4C3 layer, replacing it with a VC substrate. It is shown that with constant introduction of vanadium into melt dynamic equilibrium is established between vanadium and its compounds entering the cell and removed from it. Stabilization of a VC-coating requires organization of boriding technology for molten electrolyte and aluminum, creating a viscous low-mobility layer of a metal-boride Me–B suspension wetted with aluminum on the hearth.


petroleum cokes vanadium vanadium carbide coating melt boriding aluminum-boride suspension Me–В suspension wettable cathode 


  1. 1.
    E. S. Gorlanov, A. A. Batrachenko, B. Sh. Smailov, and A. P. Skvortsov, “Testing baked anodes with increased valadium content,” Metallurg, No. 1, 67–73 (2018).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    S. Rolseth, E. Skybakmoen, H. Gudbrandsen, and J. Thonstad, “Studies on possible presence of an aluminum carbide layer or bath film at the bottom of aluminum electrolysis cells,” Light Metals, 423–428 (2009).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ø. Østrem, Cathode Wear in Hall-Heroult Cells, Ph.D. thesis, Norwegian University of Sci. and Technology, Trondheim (2012).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    E. S. Gorlanov, G. V. Arkhipov, and A. M. Ivanova, “Development of technology for creating aluminum wetted coating on a carbon cathode. Part 1. Sequence of electrodeposition of Ti and B from cryolite melts,” in: Proc. XXXI Internat Conf. IKSOBA and XIX Internat. Conf. “Aluminum Sibirii” [in Russian], Krasnoyarsk (2013), pp. 634–642.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    T. Li, S. T. Johansen, and A. Solheim, “Detailed model of electrochemical cathode wear in Hall-Heroult cells,” Light Metals, 831–836 (2015).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    T. Li, S. T. Johansen, and A. Solheim, “Uneven cathode wear in aluminum reduction cells,” Light Metals, 927–932 (2016).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    E. S. Gorlanov, V. Yu. Bazhin, and A. A. Vlasov, “Electrochemical borating of titanium-containing carbographite materials,” Russian Metallurgy (Metally), No. 6, 489–493 (2017).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    L. E. Bodrova and É. A. Pastukhov, “Reaction of vanadium carbide with molten aluminum and copper,” Rasplavy, No. 5, 70–73 (2012).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    N. Iqbal, et al., “In situ investigation of the crystallization kinetics and the mechanism of grain refinement in aluminum alloys,” Mater. Sci. and Eng., A 416, 18–32 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Robert Schulz and Sylvio Savoie, US Patent 8741185, B2 Cl.C25C 3/08. Composite Materials for Wettable Cathodes and Use Thereof for Aluminum Production, Hydro-Quebec, Appl. No. 13/122243; Filed: Sep. 29, 2009; Date of Patent: Jun. 3 (2014).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Robert Schulz and Sylvio Savoie, RF Patent 2487956, МPК С29/00. Composite Materials for Wetted Cathodes and Their Use in Aluminum Production, Claimant and Patent Holder Hydro Quebec (SА), 2011115571/02, Claim 09.29.2009, Publ. 07.20.2013, Bull. No. 20.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. S. Gorlanov
    • 1
    Email author
  • A. A. Batrachenko
    • 2
  • B. Sh.-A. Smailov
    • 2
  • A. Yu. Morozov
    • 2
  1. 1.OOO Ékspert-AlSt. PetersburgRussia
  2. 2.AO Kazakhstan Electrolyzer PlantPavlodarKazakhstan

Personalised recommendations