Culture, Medicine, and Psychiatry

, Volume 42, Issue 4, pp 862–892 | Cite as

Governing Dementia: A Historical Investigation of the Power of States and Professionals in the Conceptualization of Dementia in China

  • Yan ZhangEmail author
Original Paper


This study intends to understand how Chinese states and healthcare professionals interact with each other in adopting biomedical concepts within the context of globalization of mental health. The conceptualization of dementia as a stigmatized mental disorder in China serves as a salient case to examine interactions between states and professionals as well as the interrelationships between different healthcare professionals in producing knowledge. By engaging the biopolitical approach, this project explores the historically-contingent conceptualizations of dementia, namely dementia as a vague and stigmatized condition in imperial China, dementia as biosocial deviance in Republican China, dementia as a product of capitalism during Mao-era China, and dementia as a stigmatized mental illness in contemporary China. These dynamics indicate that Chinese professionals have been largely influenced by state ideologies in assimilating biomedical concepts. Through the historical analysis of state-professional interactions in conceptualizing dementia, this study provides an avenue to understand how biomedical concepts transfer within the global context can be read as a site of power struggle between ethnomedicine and biomedicine, between various competing forms of healthcare professionals, and between indigenous sovereignty and governmentality. Moreover, the study of conceptualizing dementia in China sheds light on the larger sociopolitical processes of governmentality in China.


Governmentality Biopolitics Professional power Dementia China 



This research was funded by the Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research (# 9361). First and foremost, I thank Dr. Li Chunbo, a prestigious psychiatrist and vice director of Shanghai Mental Health Center, who provided me access to the valuable archival document on dementia in Shanghai Mental Health Center. After I finished the previous draft of this paper, he also reconfirmed the archival data and offered valuable comments. I am also indebted to Dr. Yin You and Dr. Li Peng in Shanghai Changzheng Military Hospital, Dr. Guo Qihao and Dr. Huang Yanyan in Shanghai Huashan Hospital, Dr. Zhang Ming and Dr. Gao Limin in Shanghai Pudong Mental Health Center, as well as Dr. Cui Huashun in Shanghai Shuguang TCM Hospital. These Chinese physicians welcomed me into their facilities and talked to me about their experiences in dementia care. I thank them deeply. I am also grateful to Dr. Zhang Mingyuan, a retired but prestigious psychiatrist who has devoted his whole life in dementia studies in China, talked to me about the conceptualization of dementia in China. I also want to say “thanks” to teachers and friends in my alma mater—Fudan University—for their help in accessing the libraries there. I would also like to express my sincere thanks to the reviewer for recommendations on the final version. Last but not least, I wish to thank my advisor Dr. Lihong Shi for her mentorship and valuable feedback about this project. Having acknowledged these sources of support, all errors and omissions are my own.


This study was funded by the Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research (# 9361).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

Yan Zhang declares that she has no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. IRB approval was obtained from the Institutional Review Boards (IRB) at Case Western Reserve University prior to start of data collection.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in this study.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of AnthropologyCase Western Reserve UniversityClevelandUSA

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