Starting from Scratch: The Development of the Adolescent Quality of Life-Mental Health Scale (AQOL-MHS)
- 323 Downloads
This article documents the initial development of a Spanish mental health quality of life (QOL) instrument based on the adolescents’ own assessment of important domains to their QOL. Using a grounded theory approach, we targeted five mental health disorders: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and major depressive disorder. In-depth interviews (n = 40) and three focus groups (n = 20) were conducted and analyzed using qualitative methods to guide the development of items. A convenient sample of island Puerto Rican adolescents aged 12–18 was recruited from outpatient mental health clinics. Qualitative analysis revealed a total of 87 themes. They were distributed based on core QOL domains such as (1) Self, (2) Peers, (3) Family, (4) School, and (5) Environment. Items were written based on prevailing themes and using as closely as possible, words and phrases used by the adolescents to describe their views and perceptions of QOL. The goal for the AQOL-MHS is to pinpoint specific areas of health-related QOL for each psychiatric diagnostic group that will provide valuable information to assist both patients and providers set, define and evaluate adequate mental health treatment goals.
KeywordsQuality of life Mental health Adolescents Qualitative analysis
This study was supported by NICHD Research Grant #HD060888 funded by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. We acknowledge the support of Joel Manzano, Ph.D., Ruby Mercury, B.A., and Miguel Nieves, B.A. for their work and dedication to the project and Nyrma Ortiz, Ph.D. for her critical review of the manuscript. We would also like to thank the Pediatric Hospital, the Department of Psychiatry of the University of Puerto Rico Medical Sciences Campus and the APS Health Care Systems’ clinical staff for their valuable support with the recruitment of participants.
- Bird, H. R., G. J. Canino, M., Davies, R. Ramirez, L., Chavez, C. Duarte, and S. Shen 2005 The Brief Impairment Scale (BIS): a multidimensional scale of functional impairment for children and adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 44(7): 699-707.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Bullinger, M., J. Alonso, G. Apolone, A. Leplege, M. Sullivan, S. Wood-Dauphinee, B. Gandek, A. Wagner, N. Aaronson, P. Bech, S. Fukuhara, S. Kaasa & J. E. Ware, Jr. 1998 Translating health status questionnaires and evaluating their quality: the IQOLA Project approach. International Quality of Life Assessment. Journal of Clinical and Epidemiology, 51: 913-923.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Fernandez-Lopez, J. A., M. Fernandez Fidalgo, A. Cieza, and U. Ravens-Sieberer 2004 [Measuring health-related quality of life in children and adolescents: preliminary validation and reliability of the Spanish version of the KINDL questionnaire]. Aten Primaria2004 May 15;33(8):434-42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Guyatt, G. H., D. H. Feeny, and D. L. Patrick 1993 Measuring health-related quality of life. Annals of Internal Medicine 118(8): 622-629.Google Scholar
- Hohmann, A. 1996 Measurement sensitivity in clinical mental health services research: recommendation for the future. In Outcomes Assessment in Clinical Practice (Chap. 28). L.I. Sedeter, and D. Dickey, eds., pp. 161–168.Google Scholar
- Ingersoll, G. M., and D. G. Marrero 1990 A modified quality of life measure for youths: Psychometric properties. Diabetes Educator 12: 114–120.Google Scholar
- Matza, L. S., A. M. Rentz, K. Secnik, A. R. Swensen, D. A. Revicki, D. Michelson, T. Spencer, J. H. Newcorn, and C. J. Kratochvil 2004 The Link between Health-Related Quality of Life and Clinical Symptoms among Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.” Journal Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics 25(3): 166-174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- The WHOQOL Group 1994. In The Development of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment Instrument (the WHOQOL), Quality of Life Assessment: International perspectives. J. Orley, and W. Kuyken, eds., pp. 41–60.Google Scholar
- Serra-Sutton, V., L. Rajmil, S. Berra, M. Herdman, M. Aymerich, M. Ferrer, S. Robitail, and M. C. Simeoni 2006 [Reliability and validity of the Spanish version of the health and quality-of-life questionnaire, the Vecu et Sante Percue de l’Adolescent (VSP-A)]. Atencion Primaria, 15;37(4): 203-208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Strauss, A., and J. Corbin 1990 Basics of qualitative research: Grounded theory procedures and techniques. London: Sage.Google Scholar
- U.S. Census Bureau 2010 www.census.gov. Retrieved 31 Oct 2011.
- Walker, S. R., R. M. Rosser (Eds.) 1993 Quality of Life Assessment, Key Issues in the 1990’s. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Hingham, USA9 + .Google Scholar