, Volume 50, Issue 11, pp 2709–2730 | Cite as

Design and development of an exoskeletal wrist prototype via pneumatic artificial muscles

  • George AndrikopoulosEmail author
  • George Nikolakopoulos
  • Stamatis Manesis
Soft Mechatronics


Full or partial loss of function in the shoulder, elbow or wrist is an increasingly common ailment caused by various medical conditions like stroke, occupational and sport injuries, as well as a number of neurological conditions, which increases the need for the development and improvement of upper limb rehabilitation devices. In this article, the design and implementation of the EXOskeletal WRIST (EXOWRIST) prototype is presented. This novel robotic appliance’s motion is achieved via pneumatic artificial muscles, a pneumatic form of actuation possessing crucial attributes for the development of an exoskeleton that is safe, reliable, portable and low-cost. Furthermore, the EXOWRIST’s properties are presented in detail and compared to the recent wrist exoskeleton technology, while its two degrees-of-freedom movement capabilities (extension–flexion, ulnar–radial deviation) are experimentally evaluated via a PID-based control algorithm. Experimental results involving initial testing of the proposed exoskeleton on a healthy human volunteer for the preliminary evaluation of the EXOWRIST’s attributes are also presented.


Pneumatic artificial muscle Exoskeleton Wrist rehabilitation PID control 



The authors would like to express their gratitude to Panayiotis Antonopoulos and ADCO Orthopaedics Ltd for the customized development and provision of the neoprene-based glove prototype. They would also like to thank Medical Doctor Fragkoulis Kyritsis and Senior Lecturer Ulrik Röijezon for their valuable insight on the conceptual design of the EXOWRIST.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • George Andrikopoulos
    • 1
    Email author
  • George Nikolakopoulos
    • 2
  • Stamatis Manesis
    • 1
  1. 1.Electrical and Computer Engineering DepartmentUniversity of PatrasRioGreece
  2. 2.Control Engineering GroupLuleå University of TechnologyLuleåSweden

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