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Meccanica

, Volume 50, Issue 12, pp 2927–2947 | Cite as

Impinging cross-shaped submerged jet on a flat plate: a comparison of plane and hemispherical orifice nozzles

  • Kodjovi Sodjavi
  • Brice Montagné
  • Pierre Bragança
  • Amina MeslemEmail author
  • Florin Bode
  • Magdalena Kristiawan
Article

Abstract

It is well known that the transfer of heat, mass and momentum to a wall by an impinging jet is partially linked to the way in which jet generation is realized. The organization of the vortices at the jet exit depends on the upstream conditions and on the geometry of the nozzle. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) and electrodiffusion techniques were used to investigate the characteristics of different impinging jets and the resulting wall shear rates and mass transfer. Two cross-shaped orifice jets, one produced by a plane orifice nozzle (i.e. a cross-shaped orifice made on a flat plate, CO/P) and the second by a hemispherical orifice nozzle (i.e. a cross-shaped orifice made on a hemisphere, CO/H), were compared to a reference round jet produced by a convergent nozzle. The distance between the jet exit and the target wall was equal to two nozzle equivalent diameters (D e ), based on the free orifice area. The Reynolds number, based on D e and on the exit bulk-velocity, was 5620 for each flow. PIV measurements give an overall view of the flow characteristics in their free and wall regions. The switching-over phenomena observed in the CO/P nozzle case, and already described in the literature with similar nozzles, did not occur in the jet from the CO/H nozzle. Electrodiffusion measurements showed differences in the shape and level of radial distribution of the wall shear rates and mass transfer. One of the most important observations is the large difference in wall shear stress between the three jets. For the same exit bulk-velocity, the maximum wall shear rate in the CO/P and CO/H nozzle jets was almost two and three times higher, respectively, than that of the reference convergent jet. This higher wall shear rate is accompanied by higher mass transfer rate. It is demonstrated that the cross-shaped orifices enhance the mass transfer not only locally but also globally.

Keywords

Impinging jet Lobed jet Wall-shear rate Mass transfer Flow dynamics 

List of symbols

C

Concentration of depolarizer in bulk (mol m−3)

DC

Diffusion coefficient of depolarizer (m2 s−1)

D

Nozzle diameter for a round jet (m)

De

Equivalent diameter based on nozzle free area (m)

al

Width of the lobes (m)

F

Faraday constant (96,485 C mol−1)

f

Frequency (Hz)

H

Nozzle-to-plate axial distance

h

Coefficient of heat transfer (W m−2 °C−1)

I

Limiting diffusion current (A)

i

Density of limiting diffusion current (A m−2)

\( i_{S} \)

Current density at the stagnation point (A m−2)

k

Coefficient of mass transfer (m s−1)

Nu

Nusselt number (Nu = hD/λ)

n

The number of electrons taking part in the electrochemical reaction

Pr

Prandtl number (Pr = ν/α)

Q

Volumetric flow (ml/mn)

R

Electrode radius (m)

r

Radial distance measured from stagnation point (m)

Re

Reynolds number (W b D e /ν)

St

Strouhal number \( (f\uptheta_{0} /W) \)

t

Time (s)

U

Radial velocity (m/s)

W

Streamwise velocity (m/s)

Wb

Jet bulk velocity, 4Q/πD e 2 (m/s)

(X, Y, Z)

System of coordinates attached to the nozzle (m)

Z*

Axis normal to target wall with origin on the target wall, Z* = H − Z (m)

X0.1

Radial distance at the periphery of the potential core where W(X 0.1) = 0.1 W 0 in the major plane (m)

S0.1

Radial distance at the periphery of the potential core where W(S 0.1) = 0.1 W 0 in the minor plane (m)

α

Thermal diffusivity (m2 s−1)

γ

Wall shear rate (s−1)

τ

Wall shear stress, τ = μ·γ (N m−2)

λ

Thermal conductivity (W m−1 °C−1)

μ

Dynamic viscosity (Pa s)

\( \uptheta_{0} \)

Momentum thickness at the jet exit Z = 0.25D e (mm)

δ0*

Displacement thickness at the jet exit Z = 0.25D e (mm)

ν

Kinematic viscosity (m2 s−1)

ω

Vorticity component (s−1)

Subscripts

L

Lévêque solution

0

Jet value at the center of the nozzle and at Z = 0.25D e

C

Jet centerline value

*

Axis taking its origin on the target wall

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the Grants from the French National Agency of Research, the “FLUBAT” project and ANR-12-VBDU-0010.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kodjovi Sodjavi
    • 1
  • Brice Montagné
    • 1
  • Pierre Bragança
    • 1
  • Amina Meslem
    • 2
    Email author
  • Florin Bode
    • 3
  • Magdalena Kristiawan
    • 4
  1. 1.LaSIE, Pôle Sciences et TechnologieUniversity of La RochelleLa RochelleFrance
  2. 2.LGCGM EA3913, Equipe Matériaux et Thermo-RhéologieUniversité Rennes 1Rennes Cedex 7France
  3. 3.Faculty of Mechanical EngineeringTechnical University of Cluj-NapocaCluj-NapocaRomania
  4. 4.Institut National de la Recherche AgronomiqueBIANantesFrance

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