Evaluation of some neuropharmacological effects of Caladium bicolor aiton (araceae) leaf extracts in mice

  • Abigail M. AkhigbemenEmail author
  • Raymond I. Ozolua
  • Enitome E. Bafor
  • Emmanuel O. Okwuofu
Original Article


Caladium bicolor Aiton (Araceae) is used in ethnomedicine for the treatment of boils, wound ulcers and convulsion. This study investigated the effects of the leaf extracts on some neuropharmacological parameters. The leaves were collected, dried, powdered and then extracted by maceration in methanol to yield the whole extract (WE). Extraction was also done using n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol in a Soxhlet apparatus to obtain n-hexane (HE), ethyl acetate (EA) and methanol (ME) extracts. Preliminary phytochemical screening was done using the whole extract. Some neuropharmacological evaluations were carried out using standard methods. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of carbohydrates, proteins, alkaloids and flavonoids. WE showed varying levels of protection against strychnine-induced convulsion. Each of HE, EA and ME increased latency (P < 0.01) to pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsion and offered varying levels of protection against maximal electroshock-induced seizure. Each of WE, HE and ME significantly increased the duration of stay on the open arm of the elevated plus maze. Both EA and ME at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg, and HE at a dose of 400 mg/kg significantly reduced the duration of immobility in forced swim test. It is concluded that the leaf extracts possess anticonvulsant, anxiolytic and antidepressant properties.


Caladium bicolor leaf extracts Anti-convulsant Anxiolytic Antidepressant 



The authors are grateful to Mr. Philip Obarisiagbon and Mr. Collins Osaigbovo for their technical support. The study was part of the M.Sc thesis by AMA in the University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

No conflict of interest is associated with this study.


  1. Adeyemi OO, Akindele AJ, Yemitan OK, Fagbo FI (2010) Anticonvulsant, anxiolytic and sedative activities of the aqueous root extract of Securidaca longependunculata fresen. J Ethnopharmacol 130:191–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akhigbemen AM, Ozolua RI, Bafor EE, Okwuofu EO (2018) Subacute toxicological profile of Caladium bicolor Aiton (Araceae) methanolic leaf extract in rat. J Pharm Pharmacogn 6(6):503–516Google Scholar
  3. Chindo BA, Amos S, Odutola AA, Vongtau HO, Abbah J, Wambebe C, Gamaniel KS (2014) Central nervous system activity of the methanol extract of Ficus platyphylla stem bark. J Ethnopharmacol 85:131–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Clay HF, Hubbard JC (1987) The Hawai’I Graden. Tropicla exotics University of Hawaii. Press Honolulu, p 38Google Scholar
  5. Detke MJ, Rickels M, Lucki I (1995) Active behaviors in the rat forced swimming test differentially produced by serotonergic and noradrenergic antidepressants. Psycho- pharmacology 121(1):66–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Evans WC (2004) Pharmacopoeial and related drugs of biological origin. Trease and Evans Pharmacognosy. UK: Elsevier Ltd. Pp 186–187Google Scholar
  7. Guan LP, Liu BY (2016) Antidepressant-like effects and mechanisms of flavonoids and related analogues. Eur J Med Chem 121:47–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Kasthuri S (2013) A review : animal models used in the screening of antiepileptic drugs neuropsy. International research journal of pharmaceutical and. Appl Sci 3(3):18–23Google Scholar
  9. Macdonald RL, Kelly KM (1995) Antiepileptic drug mechanisms of action. Epilepsia 36:S2–S12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Marsh L, Rao V (2012) Psychiatric complications in patients with epilepsy: a review. Epilepsy Res 49:11–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. NRC - National Research Council (2011) Guide for the care and use of laboratory animals. 8th edition. USA. In: pp 1–246Google Scholar
  12. Odugbemi T (2006) Outlines and pictures of medicinal plants of Nigeria. University of Lagos Press Pp 112Google Scholar
  13. Page ME, Detke MJ, Dalvi A, Kirby JG, Lucki I (1999) Serotoninergic mediation of the effects of fluoxetine, but not desipramine, in the rat forced swimming test. Psychopharmacology 147:162–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Paramdeep S, Damanpreet S, Rajesh KG (2014) Phytoflavonoids: Antiepileptics for the future. Int J Pharma Sci 6(8):51–66Google Scholar
  15. Pellow S, Chopin P, File SE, Briley M (1985) Validation of open: closed arm entries in an elevated plus-maze as a measure of anxiety in the rat. J Neurosci Method 14:149–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Porsolt RD, Bertin A, Jalfre M (1977) Behavioural despair in mice: a primary screening test for antidepressants. Archive Int Pharmacodynamic Therapeutics 229:327–336Google Scholar
  17. Porter RJ, Cereghino JJ, Gladding GD (1984) Antiepileptic drug development program. Cleve Clin 51:293–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Salako O, Akindele A, Shitta O (2015) Antidiarhoeal activity of aqueous leaf extract of Caldium bicolor (araceae) and its possible mechanisms of action. J Ethnopharmacol 176:225–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Sampath TS, Santosh PL, Mangala AP, Pavan KS, Lingesh A (2011) Anxiolytic effect of ethanolic extract of Oxalis corniculata .l in mice. Int J Pharm Bio Sci 3(2):281–290Google Scholar
  20. Schmidt D (2009) Drug treatment of epilepsy: options and limitations. Epilepsy Behav 15:56–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Sen S, Jaiswal AK, Yanpallewar S, Acharya SB (2007) Anxiogenic potential of ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin in rats. Singap Med J 48(11):1028–1032Google Scholar
  22. Singh P, Singh D, Goel RK (2014) Phytoflavonoids: Antiepileptics for the future. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 6(8):51–66Google Scholar
  23. Sofowora LA (1993) Medicinal plants and traditional Medicine in Africa. Ibadan: Spectrum Books Ltd. Pp 55–71Google Scholar
  24. Swinyard EA, Brown WC, Goodman LS (1952) Comparative assay of antiepileptic drugs in mice and rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 106:319–330PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Tosoc JPS (2016) Antiangiogenic, antitoxic and antioxidant properties of methanolic extracts of Caladium bicolor (Aiton) Venten. Hum Vet Med 8(1):10–16Google Scholar
  26. Vogel HG, Vogel WH (1997) Drug discovery and evaluation, pharmacological springer. Berlin:260–261Google Scholar
  27. WHO (2008) Traditional medicine. Available from " Accessed 22nd July, 2016
  28. Wolfgang L (2010) Critical review of current animal models of seizures and epilepsy used in the discovery and development of new antiepileptic drugs. Seizure 20:359–368Google Scholar
  29. Yemadje LP, Houinato D, Quet F, Druet-Cabanac M, Preux PP (2011) Understanding the differences in prevalence of epilepsy in tropical regions. J Epilepsia 52:1376–1381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Zheng M, Fan Y, Shi D, Liu C (2013) Antidepressant-like effect of flavonoids extracted from Apocynum venetum leaves on brain monoamine levels and dopaminergic system. J Ethnopharmacol 147(1):108–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Abigail M. Akhigbemen
    • 1
    Email author
  • Raymond I. Ozolua
    • 1
  • Enitome E. Bafor
    • 1
  • Emmanuel O. Okwuofu
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, Faculty of PharmacyUniversity of BeninBenin CityNigeria

Personalised recommendations