Protocatechuic acid attenuate depressive-like behavior in olfactory bulbectomized rat model: behavioral and neurobiochemical investigations

  • Vishnu N. Thakare
  • Rajesh R. Patil
  • Anupama A. Suralkar
  • Valmik D. Dhakane
  • Bhoomika M. PatelEmail author
Original Article


The main objective of the present study is to investigate potential effects of PCA in OBX induced depressive-like behavior in rat model. PCA was administered at a dose of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg, by per oral in OBX and sham operated rats. Behavioral (ambulatory and rearing activity and immobility time), neurochemical [serotonin (5-HT), dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression], biochemical (MDA formation, IL-6, TNF-α and antioxidants) changes in hippocampus and cerebral cortex along with serum corticosterone were investigated. Experimental findings reveals that OBX subjected rats showed alteration in behaviors like, increase in immobility time, ambulatory and rearing behaviors significantly, reduced BDNF level, 5-HT, DA,NE and antioxidant parameters along with increased serum corticosterone, MDA formation, IL-6, and TNF-α in hippocampus and cerebral cortex compared to sham operated rats. Administration of PCA significantly attenuated behavioral and neurobiochemical alterations, thus, its antidepressant-like activity is largely mediated through modulation of neurotransmitter, endocrine and immunologic systems, mainly by improvements of BDNF, 5-HT, DA, NE, reduced MDA, IL-6, and TNF-α in hippocampus and cerebral cortex.


PCA Olfactory bulbectomy Neurobiochemical alterations Oxidative stress 



Authors are grateful to Prof. M. N. Navale, Founder President, STES, Pune, and Dr. R.N. Kane, Principal, Sinhgad Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Lonavala for providing necessary infrastructural facility, and support in the completion of present research work.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interests

The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PharmacologySinhgad Institute of Pharmaceutical SciencesLonavalaIndia
  2. 2.Department of Pharmacology, Institute of PharmacyNirma UniversityAhmedabadIndia
  3. 3.Department of PharmacologySmt. Kashibai Navale College of PharmacyPuneIndia
  4. 4.Research and DevelopmentAstec Life SciencesMumbaiIndia

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