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Differential regional infarction, neuronal loss and gliosis in the gerbil cerebral hemisphere following 30 min of unilateral common carotid artery occlusion

  • Ji Hyeon Ahn
  • Minah Song
  • Hyunjung Kim
  • Tae-Kyeong Lee
  • Cheol Woo Park
  • Young Eun Park
  • Jae-Chul Lee
  • Jun Hwi Cho
  • Young-Myeong Kim
  • In Koo Hwang
  • Moo-Ho Won
  • Joon Ha Park
Original Article
  • 36 Downloads

Abstract

The degree of transient ischemic damage in the cerebral hemisphere is different according to duration of transient ischemia and cerebral regions. Mongolian gerbils show various lesions in the hemisphere after transient unilateral occlusion of the common carotid artery (UOCCA) because they have different types of patterns of anterior and posterior communicating arteries. We examined differential regional damage in the ipsilateral hemisphere of the gerbil after 30 min of UOCCA by using 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining, cresyl violet (CV) Nissl staining, Fluoro-Jade B (F-J B) fluorescence staining, and NeuN immunohistochemistry 5 days after UOCCA. In addition, regional differences in reactions of astrocytes and microglia were examined using GFAP and Iba-1 immunohistochemistry. After right UOCCA, neurological signs were assessed to define ischemic symptomatic animals. Moderate symptomatic gerbils showed several infarcts, while mild symptomatic gerbils showed selective neuronal death/loss in the primary motor and sensory cortex, striatum, thalamus, and hippocampus 5 days after UOCCA. In the areas, morphologically changed GFAP immunoreactive astrocytes and Iba-1 immunoreactive microglia were found, and their numbers were increased or decreased according to the damaged areas. In brief, our results demonstrate that 30 min of UOCCA in gerbils produced infarcts or selective neuronal death depending on ischemic severity in the ipsilateral cerebral cortex, striatum, thalamus and hippocampus, showing that astrocytes and microglia were differently reacted 5 days after UOCCA. Taken together, a gerbil model of 30 min of UOCCA can be used to study mechanisms of infarction and/or regional selective neuronal death/loss as well as neurological dysfunction following UOCCA.

Keywords

Astrocytes Fluoro Jade B Gerbil Microglia Selective neuronal death Transient focal ischemia 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research was supported by the Bio & Medical Technology Development Program of the NRF funded by the Korean government, MSIP (NRF-2015M3A9B6066835), by 2017 Research Grant from Kangwon National University (No. 520170438), by "Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science and Technology Development (Project No. PJ01329401)" Rural Development Administration, Republic of Korea, and by Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science and Technology Development (Project No. PJ01321101)" Rural Development Administration, Republic of Korea.

Compliance with ethical standards

The experimental protocol of this study was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) at Kangwon National University (approval no. KW-180124-1) and is in accordance with the guidelines following current international laws and policies (NIH Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, The National Academies Press, 8th Ed., 2011).

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute for Bioscience and BiotechnologyHallym UniversityChuncheonRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Department of Neurobiology, School of MedicineKangwon National UniversityChuncheonRepublic of Korea
  3. 3.Department of Emergency Medicine, and Institute of Medical Sciences, Kangwon National University Hospital, School of MedicineKangwon National UniversityChuncheonRepublic of Korea
  4. 4.Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, School of MedicineKangwon National UniversityChuncheonRepublic of Korea
  5. 5.Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, College of Veterinary Medicine, and Research Institute for Veterinary ScienceSeoul National UniversitySeoulRepublic of Korea

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