Can a hypercholesterolemic diet change the basal brain electrical activity and during status epilepticus in rats?
- 67 Downloads
The brain is an organ rich in lipids, including cholesterol, in which these lipids are associated to structure and brain function. Thus alterations in lipid levels of diets may interfere in the brain electrical activity. Our aim was to evaluate the interference of hypercholesterolemic diets in the brain electrical activity in normal individuals and with epilepsy. Histological analysis and electrocorticograms (ECoG) were performed in animals fed with and without hypercholesterolemic diet before and during the status epilepticus induced by pilocarpine. The power spectrum of ECoG was used to estimate the contribution of different brain rhythms in ECoG signal. The animals submitted to the status epilepticus showed cell death, vacuolization with destructuration of the cell layers. Both animal groups, those with status epilepticus and status epilepticus with hypercholesterolemic diet, showed cellular lesions similar. The hyperlipid diet promoted increase of brain electrical activity, this was revealed by increase in the average power of beta wave (14–30 Hz) and decrease in the average power of the delta wave (0,5–4 Hz). This increase of brain electrical activity was even higher when the animals were fed a hypercholesterolemic diet and submitted to status epilepticus. Animals fed with hypercholesterolemic diet and submitted to status epilepticus presented a higher increase in brain excitability compared to control animals. We observed that hypercholesterolemic diet favored a greater severity of the status epilepticus.
KeywordsCholesterol Power spectrum Status epilepticus Brain electrical activity
We are grateful to the Dr. Valdemiro Amaro da Silva Júnior of the Pathology Laboratory of the Veterinary Medicine Department of UFRPE and the Research Support Center of UFRPE (CENAPESQ) for providing technical support.
This study was funded by the following Brazilian support agencies: Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES), Foundation for Science and Technology Support in Pernambuco (FACEPE) and the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors state there are no conflicts of interest.
Statement on the welfare of animals
All procedures performed in this study involving animals were in accordance with the ethical standards of the UFRPE, approved by the Local Committee for the Care and Ethical Use of Animals in Research (CEUA/UFRPE, Recife, PE, Brazil).
- Björkhem I, Meaney S (2004) Brain cholesterol: long secret life behind a barrier. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Bio 24:806–815. https://doi.org/10.1161/01.ATV.0000120374.59826.1b CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Chali F, Djelti F, Eugene EL, Valderrama M, Marquer C, Aubourg P, Duykaerts C, Miles R, Cartier N, Navarro V (2015) Inhibiting cholesterol degradation induces neuronal sclerosis and epileptic activity in mouse hippocampus. Eur J Neurosci 41:1345–1355. https://doi.org/10.1111/ejn.12911 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Cukiert A (2006) Epilepsias generalizadas. Segmento Farma, São PauloGoogle Scholar
- Ferrari D, Cysneiros RM, Scorza CA, Arida RM, Cavalheiro EA, de Almeida ACG, Scorza FA (2008) Neuroprotective activity of omega-3 fatty acids against epilepsy-induced hippocampal damage: quantification with immunohistochemical for calcium-binding proteins. Epilepsy Behav 13:36–42. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2008.01.001 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Guyton AC, Hall JE (2006) Textbook of medical physiology, 11th edn. Elsevier Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
- Moyes CD, Schulte PM (2007) Principle of animal physiology, 2nd edn. Pearson, LondonGoogle Scholar
- Nordli DR Jr, De Vivo DC (1997) The ketogenic diet revisited: back to the future. Epilepsia 38:743–749. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1528-1157.1997.tb01460.x
- Weisstein EW (2004) Fourier transform. MathWorld, A Wolfram Web Resource http://mathworld.wolfram.com/FourierTransform.html Google Scholar
- Welch PD (1967) The use of fast Fourrier transform for the estimation of power spectra: a method based on time averaging over short, modified period grams. IEE trans Audio Electroacoust 15:70–73 https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/e633/45b4243e2376720a4e66373fdffe7a7d6be CrossRefGoogle Scholar