Metabolic Brain Disease

, Volume 33, Issue 6, pp 1811–1820 | Cite as

Therapeutic effects of probiotics on neurotoxicity induced by clindamycin and propionic acid in juvenile hamsters

  • Nora Al-Orf
  • Afaf El-Ansary
  • Geir BjørklundEmail author
  • Nadine Moubayed
  • Ramesa Shafi Bhat
  • Abir Ben Bacha
Original Article


The present study investigated the therapeutic effects of probiotics on brain intoxication induced by clindamycin and propionic acid (PPA) in hamsters. Fifty golden Syrian hamsters were randomly divided into five experimental groups of ten animals each: (A) control group receiving phosphate buffered saline; (B) oral buffered PPA-treated group being administered with a neurotoxic dose of 250 mg/kg PPA during three days; (C) oral clindamycin-treated group receiving a single dose of 30 mg clindamycin/kg; and (D, E) the two therapeutic groups being administered the same doses of clindamycin and PPA followed by probiotics for three weeks at a daily dose of 0.2 g/kg. Biochemical parameters of energy metabolism and oxidative stress were examined in brain homogenates from all hamsters. The development of pathogenic bacteria was monitored on stool samples from all hamsters. Descriptive changes in fecal microbiota and overgrowth of Clostridium species in clindamycin and PPA treated hamsters were recorded. Interestingly, probiotics were shown effective to restore normal gut microbiota. Clindamycin and PPA treatments caused an elevation in lipid peroxidation and catalase activity, as oxidative stress markers, together with a reduction in GST activity and GSH level. Energy metabolism impairment was ascertained via the activation of creatine kinase and a decrease of lactate dehydrogenase. These findings suggest that bacteria overgrowth caused by PPA and clindamycin was efficient to illustrate signs of neuronal toxicity. The present study indicates that probiotic treatment can improve poor detoxification, oxidative stress, and altered gut microbiota as mechanisms implicated in the etiology of many neurological disorders.


Bacterial overgrowth Clindamycin Oxidative stress Propionic acid 



area under the curve


Sheep Blood Agar plate


blood-brain barrier




Colony-forming unit


creatine kinase


center nerves system


enteric nervous system


electron transport chain


gastrointestinal tract






hydrogen peroxide




lactate dehydrogenase


MacConkey Agar




propionic acid


Receiver Operating Characteristics


reactive oxygen species


Short-Chain Fatty Acids


Sabouroud Dextrose agar



This research project was supported by a grant from the Research Center of the Female Scientific and Medical Colleges, Deanship of Scientific Research, King Saud University.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the authorship, and/or publication of this article.

Ethical approval

This study was ethically approved by the Ethical Committee, College of Science, King Saud University.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018
corrected publication August/2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biochemistry, College of ScienceKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  2. 2.The Materials Science Research InstituteKing Abdulaziz City for Science and TechnologyRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  3. 3.Central LaboratoryKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  4. 4.Council for Nutritional and Environmental MedicineMo i RanaNorway
  5. 5.Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of ScienceKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  6. 6.Laboratory of Plant Biotechnology Applied to Crop Improvement, Faculty of Science of SfaxUniversity of SfaxSfaxTunisia

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