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Metabolic Brain Disease

, Volume 33, Issue 4, pp 1193–1201 | Cite as

Brain ischemic preconditioning protects against moderate, not severe, transient global cerebral ischemic injury

  • Jae-Chul Lee
  • Bich-Na Shin
  • Jeong Hwi Cho
  • Tae-Kyeong Lee
  • In Hye Kim
  • YooHun Noh
  • Sung-Su Kim
  • Hyang-Ah Lee
  • Young-Myeong Kim
  • Hyeyoung Kim
  • Jun Hwi Cho
  • Joon Ha Park
  • Ji Hyeon Ahn
  • Il Jun Kang
  • In Koo Hwang
  • Moo-Ho Won
  • Myoung Cheol Shin
Original Article
  • 86 Downloads

Abstract

Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) in the brain increases ischemic tolerance to subsequent ischemic insults. In this study, we examined whether IPC protects neurons and attenuates microgliosis or not in the hippocampus following severe transient global cerebral ischemia (TCI) in gerbils. Gerbils were assigned to 8 groups; 5- and 15-min sham operated groups, 5-min and 15-min TCI operated groups, IPC plus 5- and 15-min sham operated groups, and IPC plus 5- and 15-min TCI operated groups. IPC was induced by subjecting animals to 2-min transient ischemia 1 day before 5-min TCI for a typical transient ischemia and 15-min TCI for severe transient ischemia. Neuronal damage was examined by cresyl violet staining and Fluoro-Jade B histofluorescence staining. In addition, microglial activation was examined using immunohistochemistry for Iba-1 (a marker for microglia). Delayed neuronal death and microgliosis was found in the CA1 alone in the 5-min TCI operated group at 5 days post-ischemia, and, in the 15-min TCI operated group, neuronal death and microgliosis was shown in all CA areas (CA1–3) and the dentate gyrus. IPC displayed neuroprotection and attenuated microglial activation in the 5-min TCI operated group. However, in the 15-min TCI operated group, IPC did not show neuroprotection and not attenuate microglial activation. Our present findings indicate that IPC hardly protect against severe transient cerebral ischemic injury.

Keywords

Ischemic tolerance Neuroprotection Ischemic duration Pyramidal neurons Delayed neuronal death Gliosis 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank Mr. Seung Uk Lee for his technical help in this study. This research was supported by the Bio & Medical Technology Development Program of the NRF funded by the Korean government, MSIP (NRF-2015M3A9B6066835), and by the Bio-Synergy Research Project (NRF-2015M3A9C4076322) of the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning through the National Research Foundation.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors have declared that there is no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jae-Chul Lee
    • 1
  • Bich-Na Shin
    • 1
  • Jeong Hwi Cho
    • 1
  • Tae-Kyeong Lee
    • 1
  • In Hye Kim
    • 2
  • YooHun Noh
    • 2
  • Sung-Su Kim
    • 2
  • Hyang-Ah Lee
    • 3
  • Young-Myeong Kim
    • 4
  • Hyeyoung Kim
    • 5
    • 6
  • Jun Hwi Cho
    • 6
  • Joon Ha Park
    • 7
  • Ji Hyeon Ahn
    • 7
  • Il Jun Kang
    • 8
  • In Koo Hwang
    • 9
  • Moo-Ho Won
    • 1
  • Myoung Cheol Shin
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of Neurobiology, School of MedicineKangwon National UniversityChuncheonRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Famenity CompanyGwacheonRepublic of Korea
  3. 3.Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of MedicineKangwon National UniversityChuncheonRepublic of Korea
  4. 4.Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, School of MedicineKangwon National UniversityChuncheonRepublic of Korea
  5. 5.Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Chungju HospitalKonkuk University School of MedicineChungjuRepublic of Korea
  6. 6.Department of Emergency Medicine, Kangwon National University Hospital, School of MedicineKangwon National UniversityChuncheonRepublic of Korea
  7. 7.Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute for Bioscience and BiotechnologyHallym UniversityChuncheonRepublic of Korea
  8. 8.Department of Food Science and NutritionHallym UniversityChuncheonRepublic of Korea
  9. 9.Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, College of Veterinary Medicine, and Research Institute for Veterinary ScienceSeoul National UniversitySeoulSouth Korea

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