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Metabolic Brain Disease

, Volume 33, Issue 4, pp 1121–1130 | Cite as

Neuroprotective efficiency of Mangifera indica leaves extract on cadmium-induced cortical damage in rats

  • Naif E. Al omairi
  • Omyma K. Radwan
  • Yahea A. Alzahrani
  • Rami B. Kassab
Original Article

Abstract

Due to the high ability of cadmium to cross the blood–brain barrier, cadmium (Cd) causes severe neurological damages. Hence, the purpose of this study was to investigate the possible protective effect of Mangifera indica leaf extract (MLE) against Cd-induced neurotoxicity. Rats were divided into eight groups. Group 1 served as vehicle control group, groups 2, 3 and 4 received MLE (100, 200, 300 mg /kg b.wt, respectively). Group 5 was treated with CdCl2 (5 mg/kg b.wt). Groups 6, 7 and 8 were co-treated with MLE and CdCl2 using the same doses. All treatments were orally administered for 28 days. Cortical oxidative stress biomarkers [Malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), glutathione content (GSH), oxidized form of glutathione (GSSG), 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)], inflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interlukin-1β (IL-1β)], biogenic amines [norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT)], some biogenic metabolites [3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA)], acetylcholine esterase activity (AChE) and purinergic compound [adenosine triphosphate (ATP)] were determined in frontal cortex of rats. Results indicated that Cd increased levels of the oxidative biomarkers (MDA, NO, GSSG and 8-OHdG) and the inflammatory mediators (TNF-α and IL-1β), while lowered GSH, SOD, CAT, GPx and ATP levels. Also, Cd significantly decreased the AChE activity and the tested biogenic amines while elevated the tested metabolites in the frontal cortex. Levels of all disrupted cortical parameters were alleviated by MLE co-administration. The MLE induced apparent protective effect on Cd-induced neurotoxicity in concern with its medium and higher doses which may be due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.

Keywords

Mangifera indica Cadmium Oxidative stress Biogenic amines Neurotoxicity 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Authors and Affiliations

  • Naif E. Al omairi
    • 1
  • Omyma K. Radwan
    • 2
  • Yahea A. Alzahrani
    • 1
  • Rami B. Kassab
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Internal Medicine, College of MedicineTaif UniversityTaifSaudi Arabia
  2. 2.Physiology DepartmentNational Organization for Drug Control and Research (NODCAR)GizaEgypt
  3. 3.Zoology and Entomology Department, Faculty of ScienceHelwan UniversityCairoEgypt

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