Metabolic Brain Disease

, Volume 33, Issue 4, pp 1045–1051 | Cite as

Interplay between adenosine receptor antagonist and cyclooxygenase inhibitor in haloperidol-induced extrapyramidal effects in mice

  • Devinder AroraEmail author
  • Jayesh Mudgal
  • Madhavan Nampoothiri
  • Sanchari Basu Mallik
  • Manas Kinra
  • Susan Hall
  • Shailendra Anoopkumar-Dukie
  • Gary D. Grant
  • Chamallamudi Mallikarjuna Rao
Original Article


Antipsychotic drugs are the mainstay of psychotic disorders. The ‘typical’ antipsychotic agents are commonly employed for the positive symptoms of schizophrenia, though at an expense of extrapyramidal side effects (EPS). In the present study, we employed haloperidol (HP)-induced catalepsy model in mice to evaluate the role of adenosine receptor antagonist and cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme inhibitor in the amelioration of EPS. HP produced a full blown catalepsy, akinesia and a significant impairment in locomotion and antioxidant status. Pre-treatment with COX inhibitor; naproxen (NPx) and adenosine receptor antagonist; caffeine (CAF), showed a significant impact on HP-induced cataleptic symptoms. Adenosine exerts pivotal control on dopaminergic receptors and is also involved in receptor internalization and recycling. On the other hand, prostaglandins (PGs) are implicated as neuro-inflammatory molecules released due to microglial activation in both Parkinson’s disease (PD) and antipsychotics-induced EPS. The involvement of these neuroeffector molecules has led to the possibility of use of CAF and COX inhibitors as therapeutic approaches to reduce the EPS burden of antipsychotic drugs. Both these pathways seem to be interlinked to each other, where adenosine modulates the formation of PGs through transcriptional modulation of COXs. We observed an additive effect with combined treatment of NPx and CAF against HP-induced movement disorder. These effects lead us to propose that neuromodulatory pathways of dopaminergic circuitry need to be explored for further understanding and utilizing the full therapeutic potential of antipsychotic agents.


Extrapyramidal side effects Akinesia Catalepsy Caffeine Naproxen 



This work was supported by the funds from School of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD, Australia.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Devinder Arora
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    Email author
  • Jayesh Mudgal
    • 4
  • Madhavan Nampoothiri
    • 4
  • Sanchari Basu Mallik
    • 4
  • Manas Kinra
    • 4
  • Susan Hall
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Shailendra Anoopkumar-Dukie
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Gary D. Grant
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Chamallamudi Mallikarjuna Rao
    • 4
  1. 1.School of Pharmacy and PharmacologyGriffith UniversityGold CoastAustralia
  2. 2.Menzies Health Institute QueenslandGriffith UniversityGold CoastAustralia
  3. 3.Quality Use of Medicines NetworkGriffith UniversityGold CoastAustralia
  4. 4.Department of Pharmacology, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical SciencesManipal Academy of Higher EducationManipalIndia

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