Neuro- and nephrotoxicity of subchronic cadmium chloride exposure and the potential chemoprotective effects of selenium nanoparticles
Cadmium (Cd) exposure leads to production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are associated with Cd-induced neurotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Selenium nanoparticles (Se-NPs) have high bioavailability and antioxidant activities so it attracted wide spread attention. The present study examined the possible ameliorative effect of Se-NPs with diameters of 3–5 nm and 10–20 nm against cadmium chloride (CdCl2)-induced neuro- and nephrotoxicity in rats. Rats were treated with Se-NPs (0 or 0.5 mg/kg BW, s.c.) one hour prior to the CdCl2 (0 or 5 mg/kg BW, p.o.). Pretreatment with Se-NPs significantly decreased CdCl2-induced elevation of serum kidney and brain damage biomarkers; lipid peroxidation; the percent of DNA fragmentation and nearly normalized the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AchE) and significantly increased the activity and expression of antioxidant biomarkers in the RNA and protein levels. Se-NPs also attenuated CdCl2-induced upregulation of kidney and brain pro-apoptotic B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 associated X (Bax) RNA and protein levels with preventing the increased body burden of Cd and the altered Fe and Cu homeostasis. Histopathological analysis confirmed the biochemical and molecular outcomes. Our data stated that Se-NPs appear to be effective in ameliorating the adverse neurological and nephrotoxic effects induced by CdCl2 partially through the scavenging of free radicals, metal ion chelation, averting apoptosis and altering the cell-protective pathways. The results indicated that Se-NPs could potentially included as an additive to Cd-based industries to control Cd-induced brain and renal injury.
KeywordsApoptosis Cadmium Gene expression Nephrotoxicity Neurotoxicity Selenium nanoparticles
We are grateful for the assistance of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Damanhur University. The authors acknowledge the scholars who published the articles included in the reference section of this manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
No one of the authors has a financial or personal relationship with other people or organizations that could inappropriately impact or bias the content of the paper.
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