Metabolic Brain Disease

, Volume 32, Issue 5, pp 1459–1469 | Cite as

Effects of repeated restraint stress and WiFi signal exposure on behavior and oxidative stress in rats

  • Haifa Othman
  • Mohamed AmmariEmail author
  • Mohsen Sakly
  • Hafedh Abdelmelek
Original Article


Today, due to technology development and aversive events of daily life, Human exposure to both radiofrequency and stress is unavoidable. This study investigated the co-exposure to repeated restraint stress and WiFi signal on cognitive function and oxidative stress in brain of male rats. Animals were divided into four groups: Control, WiFi-exposed, restrained and both WiFi-exposed and restrained groups. Each of WiFi exposure and restraint stress occurred 2 h (h)/day during 20 days. Subsequently, various tests were carried out for each group, such as anxiety in elevated plus maze, spatial learning abilities in the water maze, cerebral oxidative stress response and cholinesterase activity in brain and serum. Results showed that WiFi exposure and restraint stress, alone and especially if combined, induced an anxiety-like behavior without impairing spatial learning and memory abilities in rats. At cerebral level, we found an oxidative stress response triggered by WiFi and restraint, per se and especially when combined as well as WiFi-induced increase in acetylcholinesterase activity. Our results reveal that there is an impact of WiFi signal and restraint stress on the brain and cognitive processes especially in elevated plus maze task. In contrast, there are no synergistic effects between WiFi signal and restraint stress on the brain.


WiFi signal Restraint stress Cognitive function Oxidative stress Rat 



analysis of variance


access point


adenosine triphosphate


Cornu Ammonis




central nervous system


deoxyribonucleic acid


5,5′-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid)










Potassium ion


malondialdehyde level










Sodium ion


neural cell adhesion molecule




protected stretched attend postures




reactive oxygen species


revolution per minute


specific absorption rate




standard error of the mean




superoxide dismutase




Wireless Fidelity


Wi-Fi Protected Access





Financial support of the Tunisian Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research is gratefully acknowledged. Financial disclosures: none declared. The authors would like to thank Dr. Hidouri Slah for helpful advice on the manuscript’s English.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors report no conflicts of interest. The authors alone are responsible for the content and writing of the paper.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Haifa Othman
    • 1
  • Mohamed Ammari
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Mohsen Sakly
    • 1
  • Hafedh Abdelmelek
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Sciences of Bizerte, Laboratory of Integrative PhysiologyUniversity of CarthageJarzounaTunisia
  2. 2.Higher Institute of Applied Biological Sciences of TunisUniversity of Tunis El ManarTunisTunisia

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