The antioxidant effect of astaxanthin is higher in young mice than aged: a region specific study on brain
- 503 Downloads
Astaxanthin is a potential antioxidant which shows neuroprotective property. We aimed to investigate the age-dependent and region-specific antioxidant effects of astaxanthin in mice brain. Animals were divided into 4 groups; treatment young (3 months, n = 6) (AY), treatment old (16 months, n = 6) (AO), placebo young (3 months, n = 6) (PY) and placebo old (16 months, n = 6) (PO) groups. Treatment group was given astaxanthin (2 mg/kg/day, body weight), and placebo group was given 100 μl of 0.9 % normal saline orally to the healthy Swiss albino mice for 4 weeks. The level of non-enzymatic oxidative markers namely malondialdehyde (MDA); nitric oxide (NO); advanced protein oxidation product (APOP); glutathione (GSH) and the activity of enzymatic antioxidants i.e.; catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were determined from the isolated brain regions. Treatment with astaxanthin significantly (p < 0.05) reduces the level of MDA, APOP, NO in the cortex, striatum, hypothalamus, hippocampus and cerebellum in both age groups. Astaxanthin markedly (p < 0.05) enhances the activity of CAT and SOD enzymes while improves the level of GSH in the brain. Overall, improvement of oxidative markers was significantly greater in the young group than the aged animal. In conclusion, we report that the activity of astaxanthin is age-dependent, higher in young in compared to the aged brain.
KeywordsAstaxanthin Antioxidant Aging Brain
Conflict of interest
There are no conflicts of interests with other organizations. No fund was received or no funding organization was involved in this study.
- Alper G, Sozemen EY, Kanit L, Mentes G, Ersoz B, Kutay FZ (1998) Age-related alterations in superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in rat brain. Turk J Med Sci 28:491–494Google Scholar
- Bhuvaneswari S, Yogalakshmi B, Sreeja S, Anuradha CV (2014) Astaxanthin reduces hepatic endoplasmic reticulum stress and nuclear factor-kappaB-mediated inflammation in high fructose and high fat diet-fed mice. Cell Stress Chaperones 19:183–191. doi: 10.1007/s12192-013-0443-x PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gemma C, Mesches MH, Sepesi B, Choo K, Holmes DB, Bickford PC (2002) Diets enriched in foods with high antioxidant activity reverse age-induced decreases in cerebellar beta-adrenergic function and increases in proinflammatory cytokines. J Neurosci 22:6114–6120Google Scholar
- Inada K, Yokoi I, Kabuto H, Habu H, Mori A, Ogawa N (1996) Age-related increase in nitric oxide synthase activity in senescence accelerated mouse brain and the effect of long-term administration of superoxide radical scavenger. Mech Ageing Dev 89:95–102. doi: 10.1016/0047-6374(96)01743-5 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lee SJ et al. (2003) Astaxanthin inhibits nitric oxide production and inflammatory gene expression by suppressing I(kappa)B kinase-dependent NF-kappaB activation. Mol Cell 16:97–105Google Scholar
- Shinagawa H, Yamano M, Saijo T, Muratsugu M (2013) Protective activity of antioxidants in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus of chronic restraint-stressed mice. J Life Sci Res 11:1–4Google Scholar
- Tsay HJ, Wang P, Wang SL, Ku HH (2000) Age-associated changes of superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in the rat brain. J Biomed Sci 7:466–474Google Scholar
- Villeda SA et al. (2014) Young blood reverses age-related impairments in cognitive function and synaptic plasticity in mice. Nat Med 20:659–663. doi: 10.1038/nm.3569. http://www.nature.com/nm/journal/v20/n6/abs/nm.3569.html#supplementary-information.