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Metabolic Brain Disease

, Volume 29, Issue 3, pp 787–799 | Cite as

Electromagnetic radiation (Wi-Fi) and epilepsy induce calcium entry and apoptosis through activation of TRPV1 channel in hippocampus and dorsal root ganglion of rats

  • Vahid Ghazizadeh
  • Mustafa NazıroğluEmail author
Research Article

Abstract

Incidence rates of epilepsy and use of Wi-Fi worldwide have been increasing. TRPV1 is a Ca2+ permeable and non-selective channel, gated by noxious heat, oxidative stress and capsaicin (CAP). The hyperthermia and oxidant effects of Wi-Fi may induce apoptosis and Ca2+ entry through activation of TRPV1 channel in epilepsy. Therefore, we tested the effects of Wi-Fi (2.45 GHz) exposure on Ca2+ influx, oxidative stress and apoptosis through TRPV1 channel in the murine dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and hippocampus of pentylentetrazol (PTZ)-induced epileptic rats. Rats in the present study were divided into two groups as controls and PTZ. The PTZ groups were divided into two subgroups namely PTZ + Wi-Fi and PTZ + Wi-Fi + capsazepine (CPZ). The hippocampal and DRG neurons were freshly isolated from the rats. The DRG and hippocampus in PTZ + Wi-Fi and PTZ + Wi-Fi + CPZ groups were exposed to Wi-Fi for 1 hour before CAP stimulation. The cytosolic free Ca2+, reactive oxygen species production, apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, caspase-3 and −9 values in hippocampus were higher in the PTZ group than in the control although cell viability values decreased. The Wi-Fi exposure induced additional effects on the cytosolic Ca2+ increase. However, pretreatment of the neurons with CPZ, results in a protection against epilepsy-induced Ca2+ influx, apoptosis and oxidative damages. In results of whole cell patch-clamp experiments, treatment of DRG with Ca2+ channel antagonists [thapsigargin, verapamil + diltiazem, 2-APB, MK-801] indicated that Wi-Fi exposure induced Ca2+ influx via the TRPV1 channels. In conclusion, epilepsy and Wi-Fi in our experimental model is involved in Ca2+ influx and oxidative stress-induced hippocampal and DRG death through activation of TRPV1 channels, and negative modulation of this channel activity by CPZ pretreatment may account for the neuroprotective activity against oxidative stress.

Keywords

Hippocampus Dorsal root ganglion Wi-Fi Epilepsy Apoptosis TRPV1 channel 

Abbreviations

[Ca2+]i

Intracellular Ca2+

DMSO

Dimethyl sulfoxide

DRG

Dorsal root ganglion

EMR

Electromagnetic radiation

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

TRP

Transient receptor potential

TRPV1

Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1

WC

Whole cell

CAP

Capsaicin

CPZ

Capzapine

Notes

Acknowledgments

Dr. Vahid Ghazizadeh was partially supported for the project by Free Oxygen Radical Society, Isparta, Turkey. Abstract of the manuscript submitted in 11th National Neuroscience Congress, April, 2013, Izmir, Turkey. The authors wish thanks to Dr. Peter Butterworth (King’s College London, UK) for revision of English of the manuscript. Authors’ roles: MN formulated the present hypothesis and was responsible for writing the report. VG were responsible for the analyses.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. All authors approved the final manuscript.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Neuroscience Research CenterUniversity of Suleyman DemirelIspartaTurkey

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