Metabolic Brain Disease

, Volume 30, Issue 2, pp 473–482 | Cite as

Recent advances in the pharmacologic treatment of spinal cord injury

Research Article

Abstract

A need exists for the effective treatment of individuals suffering from spinal cord injury (SCI). Recent advances in the understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms occurring in SCI have resulted in an expansion of new therapeutic targets. This review summarizes both preclinical and clinical findings investigating the mechanisms and cognate pharmacologic therapeutics targeted to modulate hypoxia, ischemia, excitotoxicity, inflammation, apoptosis, epigenetic alterations, myelin regeneration and scar remodeling. Successful modulation of these targets has been demonstrated in both preclinical and clinical studies with agents such as Oxycyte, Minocycline, Riluzole, Premarin, Cethrin, and ATI-355. The translation of these agents into clinical studies highlights the progress the field has made in the past decade. SCI proves to be a complex condition; the numerous pathophysiological mechanisms occurring at varying time points suggests that a single agent approach to the treatment of SCI may not be optimal. As the field continues to mature, the hope is that the knowledge gained from these studies will be applied to the development of an effective multi-pronged treatment strategy for SCI.

Keywords

Spinal cord injury Neurodegeneration Inflammation Estrogen Regeneration Myelin 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The work cited here was supported in part by the NIH-NINDS, RO1 NS-31622; NS-45967. Additional support by the VA IOBX001262-01, Spinal Cord Injury Research Fund of the State of South Carolina, and from the Medical University of South Carolina Department of Neurosciences (Neurosurgery).

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NeurosciencesMedical University of South CarolinaCharlestonUSA
  2. 2.Department of NeurosurgeryMedical University of South CarolinaCharlestonUSA

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