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Metabolic Brain Disease

, Volume 28, Issue 2, pp 277–279 | Cite as

Role of diabetes mellitus on hepatic encephalopathy

  • Javier Ampuero
  • Isidora Ranchal
  • María del Mar Díaz-Herrero
  • José Antonio del Campo
  • Juan D. Bautista
  • Manuel Romero-Gómez
Original Paper

Abstract

Hepatic encephalopathy is the main cognitive dysfunction in cirrhotic patients associated with impaired prognosis. Hyperammonemia plus inflammatory response do play a crucial role on hepatic encephalopathy. However, in some patients HE appeared without hyperammonemia and patients with increased levels of ammonia could not show cognitive dysfunction. This has led to investigate other factors that could act in a synergistic way. Diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance are characterized by releasing and enhancing these pro-inflammatory cytokines and, additionally, has been related to hepatic encephalopathy. Indeed, patients with diabetes showed raised risk of over hepatic encephalopathy in comparison with non-cirrhotics. Type 2 diabetes mellitus could impair hepatic encephalopathy by different mechanisms that include: a) increasing glutaminase activity; b) impairing gut motility and promoting constipation, intestinal bacterial overgrowth and bacterial translocation. Despite of insufficient clarity about the practicability of anti-diabetic therapy and the most efficacious therapy, we would have to pay a special attention to the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance in cirrhotic patients.

Keywords

Hepatic encephalopathy Inflammation Diabetes mellitus Glutaminase Ammonia 

Abbreviations

HE

Hepatic encephalopathy

DM

Diabetes mellitus

T2DM

Type 2 diabetes mellitus

HD

Hepatogenous diabetes

TNFα

Tumor necrosis factor alpha

IL-6

Interleukin 6

GLS

Glutaminase

KGLS

Kidney-type glutaminase

LGLS

Liver-type glutaminase

BBB

Blood brain barrier

IR

Insulin resistance

SIBO

Small intestine bacterial overgrowth

MHE

Minimal hepatic encephalopathy

Notes

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Javier Ampuero
    • 1
  • Isidora Ranchal
    • 1
  • María del Mar Díaz-Herrero
    • 2
  • José Antonio del Campo
    • 1
  • Juan D. Bautista
    • 2
  • Manuel Romero-Gómez
    • 1
  1. 1.Unit for Clinical Management of Digestive Diseases and CIBERehd, Hospital Universitario de ValmeUniversity of SevillaSevillaSpain
  2. 2.Department of Molecular BiologyUniversity of SevillaSevillaSpain

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