Inhibition of secretory phospholipase A2 IIa attenuates prostaglandin E2-induced invasiveness in lung adenocarcinoma
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Secretory phospholipase A2 IIa (sPLA2 IIa) catalyzes the production of multiple inflammatory mediators that influence the development of lung and other cancers. The most potent of these carcinogenic mediators is prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). We hypothesize that sPLA2 IIa inhibition modulates the production of PGE2, and sPLA2 IIa inhibition exerts its antineoplastic effects via downregulation of PGE2 production. We aim to evaluate these relationships via analysis of PGE2-mediated growth regulation pathways. A549 and H1650 lung adenocarcinoma cells were assayed for PGE2 production in the presence of sPLA2 IIa inhibitor. A549 and H1650 cells were treated with PGE2 and immune blotting was performed to assess ICAM-1 expression and STAT-3 activity. PGE2-induced ICAM-1 expression was measured via immunofluorescence. A549 and H1650 cells were treated with PGE2 in the presence of STAT3 inhibitor and assayed for ICAM-1 expression. A549 cells were treated with PGE2 in the presence ICAM-1 blocking antibody and assayed for invasion. PGE2 stimulation significantly increased the invasiveness and proliferation of lung adenocarcinoma (invasion p < 0.05, proliferation p < 0.05 A549 cells, p < 0.005 H1650 cells). sPLA2 IIa inhibition reduced PGE2 secretion (p < 0.05). PGE2 stimulation significantly upregulated the expression of cell adhesion molecule ICAM-1 and the phosphorylation of anti-apoptotic transcription factor STAT3 (p < 0.05). STAT3 inhibition attenuated ICAM-1 expression demonstrating the dependence of ICAM-1 on the STAT3 pathway (p < 0.05). ICAM-1 blockade attenuated the pro-invasive effects of PGE2 (p < 0.05). sPLA2 IIa inhibition attenuates the potent effects of PGE2-induced invasiveness. This is mediated by decreasing pro-inflammatory and invasion-promoting ICAM-1via the STAT-3 pathway. These data further describe how sPLA2 IIa inhibition mechanistically exerts its anticancer effects and support its use as an antineoplastic agent.
KeywordsLung cancer Invasion Cell signaling sPLA2 Prostaglandin
We would like to acknowledge the University of Colorado Department of Surgery, Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery for assistance in performing this research.
This work was funded by the Department of Surgery, Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, and there is no outside funding or grants to report.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors report no conflicts of interest related to this work.
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