Alterations of the oxidative status in rat hippocampus and prodepressant effect of chronic testosterone enanthate administration
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In a last few decades, anabolic–androgenic steroids (AASs) abuse has become serious health concern especially among adolescents. AASs abuse has been reported to be involved in pathogenesis of various mood disorders, including depression. In order to evaluate the effects of chronic (6 weeks) testosterone enanthate (TE) treatment in supraphysiological dose and exercise on depression-like behavior in rats, 32 male rats were divided into four groups: control (C), testosterone enanthate (T, 20 mg/kg/w, s.c.), exercise (E, swimming for 1 h/day), and combined group—testosterone enanthate plus exercise (T + E). TE produced prodepressant effect in tail suspension test (TST) parameters compared to the control and exercise groups, while exercise induced the opposite effect. Simultaneous TE administration along with exercise attenuated the antidepressant effect of exercise reversing the parameters of TST to the control values. Oxidative stress markers in rat hippocampus were significantly altered following applied protocols. TE administration increased index of lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and decreased superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), while exercise induced the opposite effect, with no change in glutathione (GSH) levels. Our results indicate that TE chronic treatment resulted in clear depressive-like behavior, even abolishing beneficial antidepressant effects of exercise in TST that was accompanied with increased oxidative damage in rat hippocampus. The antidepressant effect of exercise correlated with the improvement of redox status in hippocampal tissue. Behavioral parameters obtained in TST significantly correlated with the levels of oxidative stress markers.
KeywordsDepression Hippocampus Testosterone enanthate Exercise Oxidative stress
Tail suspension test
Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances
This work was supported by the Faculty of Medical Sciences (JP 01/13), University of Kragujevac, Serbia.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Research involving human or animal rights
All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed. All research procedures were carried out in accordance with European Directive for welfare of laboratory animals No. 86/609/EEC and the principles of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP), approved by the Ethical Committee of the Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Kragujevac, Serbia.
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