Advertisement

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry

, Volume 385, Issue 1–2, pp 115–123 | Cite as

RETRACTED ARTICLE: Adipose stromal-vascular fraction-derived paracrine factors regulate adipogenesis

  • Minyan Liu
  • Lei Guo
  • Yu Liu
  • Yu Pei
  • Nan Li
  • Mengmeng Jin
  • Lichao Ma
  • Zhibing Li
  • Banruo Sun
  • Chunlin LiEmail author
Article

Abstract

Visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue depots have distinct features and contribute differentially to metabolic disease. Therefore, the adipogenic potential of different fat depots was investigated and found to be higher in subcutaneous compared with visceral stromal–vascular fraction (SVF), which contains adipocyte precursor cells. This increased differentiation capacity was not due to elevated numbers of LinSca1+CD29+CD34+Pref1+ precursor cells, as the number of preadipocytes was higher in visceral than in subcutaneous SVF. The secreted heat-sensitive factors from the SVF inhibited adipocyte differentiation more in visceral than in subcutaneous SVF. In order to explore secreted proteins that potentially inhibit differentiation, the secretome of murine SVF was analyzed by mass spectrometry, which resulted in the identification of 113 secreted proteins with an overlap of 42 % between subcutaneous and visceral SVF. Comparison of the mRNA expression in SVF from both depots revealed 16 transcripts that were significantly expressed more in visceral than in subcutaneous SVF. A functional differentiation screen identified seven potential inhibitory candidates: biglycan, decorin, bone morphogenic protein 1, epidermal growth factor-containing fibulin-like extracellular matrix protein 2, elastin microfibril interfacer 1, matrix gla protein, and Sparc-like 1. For further verification, murine recombinant decorin or Sparc-like 1 was added to the media during the differentiation process leading to a dose-dependent decrease in adipogenesis. Further analysis will be necessary to assess the impact of the other candidates on adipocyte differentiation.

Keywords

Adipogenesis Paracrine factors Stromal vascular fraction Adipose 

Supplementary material

11010_2013_1820_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (507 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 506 kb)

References

  1. 1.
    Shi Y, Burn P (2004) Lipid metabolic enzymes: emerging drug targets for the treatment of obesity. Nat Rev Drug Discov 3:695–710CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Rosen ED, Spiegelman BM (2006) Adipocytes as regulators of energy balance and glucose homeostasis. Nature 444:847–853PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wajchenberg BL (2000) Subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue: their relation to the metabolic syndrome. Endocr Rev 21:697–738CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Jernas M et al (2006) Separation of human adipocytes by size: hypertrophic fat cells display distinct gene expression. FASEB J 20:1540–1542CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Spalding KL et al (2008) Dynamics of fat cell turnover in humans. Nature 453:783–787CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rosen ED, MacDougald OA (2006) Adipocyte differentiation from the inside out. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 7:885–896CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hauner H et al (1989) Promoting effect of glucocorticoids on the differentiation of human adipocyte precursor cells cultured in a chemically defined medium. J Clin Invest 84:1663–1670PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Joe AW, Yi L, Even Y, Vogl AW, Rossi FM (2009) Depot-specific differences in adipogenic progenitor abundance and proliferative response to high-fat diet. Stem Cells 27:2563–2570CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Rodeheffer MS, Birsoy K, Friedman JM (2008) Identification of white adipocyte progenitor cells in vivo. Cell 135:240–249CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Garces C, Ruiz-Hidalgo MJ, Bonvini E, Goldstein J, Laborda J (1999) Adipocyte differentiation is modulated by secreted delta-like (dlk) variants and requires the expression of membrane associated dlk. Differentiation 64:103–114CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ross SE et al (2000) Inhibition of adipogenesis by Wnt signaling. Science 289:950–953CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Xing H et al (1997) TNF alpha-mediated inhibition and reversal of adipocyte differentiation is accompanied by suppressed expression of PPARgamma without effects on Pref-1 expression. Endocrinology 138:2776–2783PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Selvarajan S, Lund LR, Takeuchi T, Craik CS, Werb Z (2001) A plasma kallikrein-dependent plasminogen cascade required for adipocyte differentiation. Nat Cell Biol 3:267–275PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Marques BG, Hausman DB, Martin RJ (1998) Association of fat cell size and paracrine growth factors in development of hyperplastic obesity. Am J Physiol 275:R1898–R1908PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Skurk T, Alberti-Huber C, Herder C, Hauner H (2007) Relationship between adipocyte size and adipokine expression and secretion. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92:1023–1033CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Livingston JN, Cuatrecasa P, Lockwood DH (1972) Insulin insensitivity of large fat cells. Science 177:626–628CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gesta S et al (2006) Evidence for a role of developmental genes in the origin of obesity and body fat distribution. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103:6676–6681PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hansen LH, Madsen B, Teisner B, Nielsen JH, Billestrup N (1998) Characterization of the inhibitory effect of growth hormone on primary preadipocyte differentiation. Mol Endocrinol 12:1140–1149CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Tchkonia T et al (2002) Fat depot origin affects adipogenesis in primary cultured and cloned human preadipocytes. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 282:R1286–R1296CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    O’Connell J et al (2010) The relationship of omental and subcutaneous adipocyte size to metabolic disease in severe obesity. PLoS One 5:e9997PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Rajashekhar G et al (2008) IFATS collection: adipose stromal cell differentiation is reduced by endothelial cell contact and paracrine communication: role of canonical Wnt signaling. Stem Cells 26:2674–2681CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wilson A et al (2007) Dormant and self-renewing hematopoietic stem cells and their niches. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1106:64–75CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Alvarez-Llamas G et al (2007) Characterization of the human visceral adipose tissue secretome. Mol Cell Proteomics 6:589–600CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Zhou H et al (2009) Quantitative analysis of secretome from adipocytes regulated by insulin. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai) 41:910–921CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kim J et al (2010) Comparative analysis of the secretory proteome of human adipose stromal vascular fraction cells during adipogenesis. Proteomics 10:394–405CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Minyan Liu
    • 1
  • Lei Guo
    • 2
  • Yu Liu
    • 1
  • Yu Pei
    • 1
  • Nan Li
    • 1
  • Mengmeng Jin
    • 1
  • Lichao Ma
    • 1
  • Zhibing Li
    • 1
  • Banruo Sun
    • 1
  • Chunlin Li
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Elderly EndocrinologyChinese PLA General HospitalBeijingChina
  2. 2.Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Beijing Tiantan HospitalCapital Medical UniversityBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations