Advertisement

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry

, Volume 364, Issue 1–2, pp 181–191 | Cite as

Excessive dietary calcium in the disruption of structural and functional status of adult male reproductive system in rat with possible mechanism

  • Amar K Chandra
  • Pallav Sengupta
  • Haimanti Goswami
  • Mahitosh Sarkar
Article

Abstract

Calcium is essential for functioning of different systems including male reproduction. However, it has also been reported as chemo-castrative agent. The study has been undertaken to elucidate the effect of excessive dietary calcium on male reproductive system in animals with possible action. Adult male healthy rats fed CaCl2 at different doses (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 g%) in diet for 13 and 26 days to investigate reproductive parameters as well as the markers of oxidative stress. Significant alteration was found (P < 0.05) in testicular and accessory sex organs weight, epididymal sperm count, testicular steroidogenic enzyme (Δ5 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD) activities, serum testosterone, LH, FSH, LPO, activities of antioxidant enzymes, testicular histoarchitecture along with adrenal Δ5 3β-HSD activity with corticosterone level in dose- and time-dependent manner. Overall observations suggest that excessive dietary calcium enhances the generation of free-radicals resulting in structural and functional disruption of male reproduction.

Keywords

Calcium chloride Steroidogenic enzyme Oxidative stress Antioxidant enzyme Lipid peroxidation Superoxide dismutase 

Abbreviations

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

ASg

Type A spermatogonia

pLSc

Preleptotene spermatocytes

mPSc

Mid-pachytene spermatocytes

7Sd

Step 7 spermatids

LH

Luteinizing hormone

FSH

Follicle stimulating hormone

HSD

Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase

NAD

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate

LPO

Lipid peroxidation

TBARS

Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances

MDA

Malondialdehyde

SOD

Superoxide dismutase

CAT

Catalase

EDTA

Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid

BSA

Bovine serum albumin

TMB

Tetramethylbenzidine

ANOVA

Analysis of variance

HPG

Hypothalamo–pituitary–gonadal axis

HPA

Hypothalamo–pituitary–adrenal axis

PVN

Paraventricular nucleus

CRH

Corticotrophin releasing hormone

ACTH

Adreno-corticotropic hormone

PUFA

Poly unsaturated fatty acid

IP3

Inositol tri-phosphate

Notes

Acknowledgments

Acknowledgment is due to the Project of University Potential for Excellence (UPE), University Grants Commission (UGC), New Delhi, India for providing scholarship to second author for conducting this work. The authors are thankful to Dr. Syed N. Kabir, Scientist, Cell Biology & Physiology Division, Indian Institute of Chemical Biology (IICB), Kolkata, India for his help in conducting RIA of FSH and LH.

Conflict of interest

None.

References

  1. 1.
    Mertz W (2000) Three decades of dietary recommendations. Nutr Rev 58:324–331PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Nordin BEC (1960) Osteomalacia, osteoporosis and calcium deficiency. Clin Ortho Relat Res 17:235–258Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Andon MB, Ilich JZ, Tzagournio MA, Matkovic V (1996) Magnesium balance in adolescent females consuming a low- or high-calcium diet. Am J Clin Nutr 63:950–953PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Curhan GC, Willett WC, Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ (1993) A prospective study of dietary calcium and other nutrients and the risk of symptomatic kidney stones. The N Engl J Med 328:833–838CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ilich-Ernst JZ, McKenna AA, Badenhop NE (1998) Iron status, menarche and calcium supplementation in adolescent girls. Am J Clin Nutr 68:880–887PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wood RJ, Zheng JJ (1997) High dietary calcium intake reduces zinc absorption and balance in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 65:1803–1809PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Park YK, Yetley EA, Calvo MS (1997) Calcium intake levels in the United States: issues and considerations. Food Nutr Agric 20:34–43Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Weaver CM, Heaney RP (2006) Calcium and Human Health, 1st edn. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, pp 313–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chandra AK, Tripathy S, Mukhopadhyay S, Lahari D (2003) Studies on endemic goiter and associated iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) in the rural area of gangetic West Bengal. Ind J Nutr Diet 40:53–58Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Jana K, Samanta PK (2006) Evaluation of single intratesticular injection of calcium chloride for nonsurgical sterilization in adult albino rats. Contraception 73:289–300PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Canpolat I, Gur S, Gunay C, Bulut S, Eroksuz H (2006) An evaluation of the outcome of bull castration by itra-testicular injection of ethanol and calcium chloride. Rev Med Vet 157:420–425Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Murono EP, Payne AH (1979) Testicular maturation in rats: In vivo effect of gonadotrophins on steroidogenic enzymes in hypophysectomized immature rats. Biol Reprod 20:911–916PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Annunziato L, Cataldi M, Pignataro G, Secondo A, Molinaro P (2007) Glutamate-independent calcium toxicity: introduction. Stroke 38:661–664PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Chandra AK, Tripathy S, Debnath A, Ghosh D (2007) Bioavailability of iodine and hardness (magnesium and calcium salt) in drinking water in the etiology of endemic goitre in Sundarban Delta of West Bengal (India). J Environ Sci Eng 49:139–142PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Etling N, Fouque F, Garabedian M (1986) Effects of dietary supply of calcium on thyroid function in rats. Reprod Nutr Dev 26:841–847PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sarkar M, Roy Chaudhury G, Chattopadhyay A, Biswas NM (2003) Effect of sodium arsenate on spermatogenesis, plasma gonadotrophins and testosterone in rats. Asian J Androl 5:27–31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Leblond PC, Clermont Y (1952) Definition of the stages of the seminiferous epithelium in the rat. Ann N Y Acad Sci 55:548–573PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Clermont Y, Morgentaler H (1955) Quantitative study of spermatogenesis in hypophysectomized rats. Endocrinology 57:369–382PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Majumder GC, Biswas R (1979) Evidence for the occurrence of ecto (adenosine triphosphatase) in rat epididymal spermatozoa. Biochem J 183:737–743PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ohkawa H, Ohishi N, Yagi K (1989) Assay for lipid peroxidases in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Anal Biochem 95:351–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Aebi H (1983) Catalase. In: Bergmeyer H (ed) Methods of enzymatic analysis. Academic press, New York, pp 276–286Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Marklund S, Marklund G (1974) Involvement of superoxide anion radical in the autoxidation of pyrogallol and a convenient assay for superoxide dismutase. Eur J Biochem 47: 469–474Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Talalay P (1962) Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases. Methods Enzymol 5:512–532Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Jarabak J, Adams JA, Williams-Ashman HG, Talalay P (1962) Purification of 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase of human placenta and studies on its transhydrogenase function. J Biol Chem 237:345–357PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lowry OH, Rosebrough NJ, Farr AL, Randall RJ (1951) Protein measurement from phenol reagent. J Biol Chem 193:265–270PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Baginski ES et al (1973) Clin Chim Acta 46:49PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Moudgal NR, Madhawa Raj HG (1974) Pituitary gonadotropin. In: Jafe BM, Berham HR (eds) Methods of hormone radioimmunoassay. Academic Press, New York, pp 57–85Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Greenwood FC, Hunter WM, Glover JS (1963) The preparation of 131I-labelled human growth hormone of high specific activity. Biochem J 89:114–123PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Glick D, Recllich DV, Seyniour L (1964) Fluorometric determination of corticosterone and cortisol in 0.02–0.05 ml of plasma or submilligram samples of adrenal tissue. Endocrinology 74:653PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Silber RH (1966) In: Glick D (ed) Methods in Biochemical Analysis. Interscience Publishers, New York, p 63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Biswas NM, Chattopadhdyay A, Sengupta R, Roychowdhury G, Sarkar M (1999) Protection of adrenocortical activity by dietary casein in rats treated with estrogen. Med Sci Res 27:415Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Biswas NM, Roychowdhury G, Sarkar M, Sengupta R (2000) Influence of adrenal cortex in testicular activity in the toad during the breeding season. Life Sci 66:1253PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Fisher RA, Yates R (1974) Statistical Tables for Biological, Agricultural and Medical Research. Longman Group, LondonGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Davies KM, Heaney RP, Recker RR, Lappe JM, Barger-Lux MJ, Rafferty K, Hinders S (2000) Calcium intake and body weight. J Clin Encrinol Metab 85:4635–4638CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Welberg JW, Monkelbaan JG, de Vries EG, Muskiet FA, Cats A (1994) Effect of supplimental dietary calcium on quantitative fecal fat excretion in man. Ann Nutr Metab 38:185–191PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Zemel MB, Morgan K (2002) Interaction between calcium, dairyband dietary macronutrients in modulating body composition in obese rats. FASEB J 16:A369Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Zemel MB, Shi H, Greer B, Dirienzo D, Zemel PC (2000) Regulation of adiposity by dietary calcium. FASEB J 14:1132–1138PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Chapin RE, Harris MW, Davis BJ, Ward SM, Wilson RE, Mauncy MA, Lockhart AC, Smialowicz RJ, Moser VC, Burka LT, Collins BJ (1997) Fundam Appl Toxicol 40:138–157PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Hansson MJ, Mansson R, Morota S et al (2008) Calcium induced generation of reactive oxygen species in brain mitochondria is mediated by permeability transition. Free Radic Biol Med 45:284–294PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Bandyopadhyay U, Das D, Banerjee RK (1999) Reactive oxygen species:oxidative damage and pathogenesis. Curr Sci 77:658–666Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Maneesh M, Jayalekhshmi H, Dutta S, Singh TA, Chakrabarti A (2006) Impaired Hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal function in men with diabetes mellitus. Ind J Clin Biochem 21:165–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Ermak G, Davies KJA (2002) Calcium and oxidative stress: from cell signaling to cell death. Mol Immunol 38:713–721PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Bruckbauer A, Zemel MB (2009) Dietary Calcium and Dairy Modulation of Oxidative Stress and Mortality in aP2-Agouti and wild-type Mice. Nutrients 1:50–70PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Bansal MR, Davies AG (1986) Effects of testosterone oenanthante on spermatogenesis and serum testosterone concentration in adult mice. J Reprod Fertil 78(1):219–224PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Hanukoglu I, Rapoport R, Weiner L, Sklan D (1993) Electron leakage from the mitochondrial NADPH-adrenodoxin reductase-adrenodoxin-P450scc (cholesterol side chain cleavage system). Arch Biochem Biophys 305:489–498PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Hornsby PJ (1980) Regulation of cytochrome P-450 supported 11-hydroxylation of deoxycortisol by steroids, oxidants and antioxidants in adrenocortical cell culture. J Biol Chem 255:4020–4027PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Chandra AK, Chatterjee A, Ghosh R, Sarkar M, Chaube SK (2007) Chromium induced testicular impairment in relation to adrenocortical activities in adult albino rats. Reprod Toxicol 24:388–396PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Chandra AK, Ghosh R, Chatterjee A, Sarkar M (2007) Effects of vanadate on male rat reproduction tract histology, oxidative stress markers and androgenic enzyme activities. J Inorg Biochem 101:944–956PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Viau V (2002) Functional cross talk between hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal and adrenal axis. J Neuroendocrinol 14:506–513PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Pellegrini A, Grieco M, Materazzi G, Gesi M, Ricciardi MP (1998) Stress-induced Morphohistochemical and Functional Changes in Rat Adrenal Cortex, Testis and Major Salivary Glands. The Histochem J 30:695–701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Janszen FH, Cooke BA, Van driel JA, Vander molen HJ (1976) J Biochem 160:433–437Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Steinberger E, Steinberger A (1975) Hormonal control of testicular function in mammals. In: Hamiltol DW, Greep RO (eds) Handbook of Physiology, Endocrinology, vol. IV, Part 2. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, MD, pp 325–345Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amar K Chandra
    • 1
  • Pallav Sengupta
    • 1
  • Haimanti Goswami
    • 1
  • Mahitosh Sarkar
    • 2
  1. 1.Endocrinology & Reproductive Physiology Laboratory, Department of PhysiologyUniversity College of Science & Technology, University of CalcuttaKolkataIndia
  2. 2.Department of PhysiologyGurunanak Institute of Dental Science & ResearchKolkataIndia

Personalised recommendations